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X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been used in a broad spectrum of applications. These include elemental analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, based on wavelength dispersive (WDXRF) or energy dispersive (EDXRF) methods. In these methods the detection limit of analyte elements is mainly in the one to ten ppm range in solid samples. Therefore, improvement of these limits is desirable for many useful applications. In this context it is essential to remember that the excitation efficiency for fluorescent X-rays is very low when compared with electron or proton excitation. In the case of WDXRF, the dominant factor is the low reflectivity from the analyzing crystal.
Spectrographic analysis for carbon and boron using fluorescent x-rays has been studied over the past few years; principles and applications for using those ultra-soft x-rays were described, based on the combination of total reflection and filtering rather than on the wavelength dispersive method of Bragg reflection (1, 2). However, oxygen and nitrogen, with x-ray wavelengths of 23.7lÅ and 31.60Å, respectively, cannot be detected as easily because of their high absorption by the detector window materials such as polypropylene, polyester or formvar films.
Recently, an epoch-making printing technology called “SuPR-NaP (Surface Photo-Reactive Nanometal Printing)” that allows easy, high-speed, and large-area manufacturing of ultrafine silver wiring patterns has been developed. Here we demonstrate low-voltage operation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) composed of printed source/drain electrodes that are produced by the SuPR-NaP technique. We utilize an ultrathin layer of perfluoropolymer, Cytop, that functions not only as a base layer for producing patterned reactive surface in the SuPR-NaP technique but also as an ultrathin gate dielectric layer of OTFTs. By the use of 22 nm-thick Cytop gate dielectric layer, we successfully operate polycrystalline pentacene OTFTs below 2 V with negligible hysteresis. We also observe the improvement of carrier injection by the surface modification of printed silver electrodes. We discuss that the SuPR-NaP technique allows the production of high-capacitance gate dielectric layers as well as high-resolution printed silver electrodes, which provides promising bases for producing practical active-matrix OTFT backplanes.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
We report photometric results from 44 runs at 11 observatories during the international campaign ‘TT Ari–94’. No coherent oscillations in the frequency range 10… 900 cycle d−1 are found. The highest peaks in the power spectrum cover the wide range of 28… 139 cycle d−1. Variations occur at a few preferred time-scales rather than at one cycle length, with a possible secular decrease. In the frequency range 90… 900 cycle d−1 the power spectrum obeys a power law with slope γ ranging from 0.8 to 2.6 for different runs.
TT Ari is one of the brightest cataclysmic variables and remains one of the most interesting objects of this class. It exhibits a variety of phenomena observed at time-scales from seconds to months. A recent detailed photometric study of this object and a bibliographical overview may be found in Tremko et al. (1996). Tremko et al. (1992, 1993, 1994) discuss aspects of the TT Ari–88 campaign. Our campaign TT Ari–94 was unprecedented, as the observations were longitude-dispersed, from Japan through Turkmenia, to Europe and the American continent. Moreover, our optical data on October 7 partially overlap with the HST observations obtained by Home & Welsh (1995, private communication). The numerical results of observations obtained during these nights are shown in Table 1.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
The morphology of graphene on Si and SiC substrates is investigated using molecular- dynamics simulation. The effects of the size and orientation of graphene on its roughness, distance from the substrate, and periodic structure are examined. The roughness and distance show the size dependency which agrees with the size dependency of the ratio of the periphery length of graphene to its area. It is found there are some cases in which the roughness of graphene can be suppressed.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
We have investigated the effect of polytype and oxidation condition on the temperature dependence of channel mobility and threshold voltage in 4H- and 6H-SiC MOSFETs. The behaviors of the channel mobility are apparently different for 4H- and 6H-SiC MOSFETs. In contrast to the polytype effect, dry and wet oxidation samples have almost similar channel mobilities. The variation of the threshold voltage with temperature is proportional to the number of the interface states near the conduction band extracted from n-type MOS capacitors. Therefore, we argue that the distribution of the interface states near the conduction band in p-type SiC MOS structure can be represented by that in n-type SiC MOS structure. Although the oxidation condition varies the distribution of the interface states in the energy range between 0.2 and 0.4 eV from the conduction band, it has little influence on the channel mobility.
The photo-induced magnetism was originally found in Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 powder by the ESR and x-ray diffraction studies. However, the mechanism of the photo-induce magnetism was under cover for a long time. Now, D.C. magnetization measurement under a near infrared pulsed laser irradiation (hν = 1.18 eV) reveals the mechanism. The D.C. magnetization prominently increases (approximately 6 %) under the laser irradiation, especially around 90 K near the canted antiferromagnetic (CAF) – antiferromagnetic (AF) transition. The result is consistent with the previous studies and indicates that a CAF – ferromagnetic transition is caused associating with the charge-order (CO) – charge-delocalize (CD) (insulator – metal) transition by the laser irradiation. As the second step for development, the thin films were prepared with the pellet of Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 in the on-axis and off-axis geometry of RF magnetron sputtering deposition. The off-axis geometry provides the Pr0.65Ca0.35MnO3 film same as powder composition and the on-axis sputtering fortunately provides the Pr0.99Ca0.01MnO3 film. Both films show photo-induced magnetism. The present photo-induced magnetism is coming from a spin-canted phase in both compounds.
n-type 3C-SiC was heteroepitaxially grown on n-type Si(100) substrates using HMDS (hexamethyldisilane) and characterized by DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements. In order to investigate relationship of defect density with epilayer thickness, epilayers with various thicknesses were grown. Relatively thin (<1.0μm thick) epilayers were found to contain defects with energy levels distributed in a wide energy range, while relatively thick (>2.2μm thick) epilayers contain a defect with an activation energy of 0.25eV. This defect level is slightly shallower than that in 3C-SiC grown by SiH4 and C3H8 (∼0.3eV).
Microdefects in Cr-doped SI LEC (001) GaAs wafers which were implanted with Zn+ or As /Zn and capless-annealed in an As ambient have been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. Most of the microdefects in Zn +- implanted GaAs specimens were identified as precipitates and stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs). Every SFT was accompanied by a precipitate at the apex. Most of the precipitates were distributed from Rp to Rp + 2∆Rp. Two types (α and β) of SFTs were differentiated by the arrangement of atoms in the core of the stair-rod partial dislocations bounding the periphery of the SFTs in a polar Frystal. β-SFTs were, however, predominantly formed in Zn+ implanted GaAs specimens. Dual implantation of As+ and Zn+ suppressed the formation of SFTs, but not that of precipitates. The formation of SFTs was found to be influenced by the deviation in stoichiometry.
Erbium (Er) ions were co-implanted with ytterbium (Yb) into Al0.70Ga0.30As substrates and we realized an increase in the intensity of Er intra-4f-shell luminescence. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of Er-related dominant peak (1538.2nm) was enhanced by co-implanted Yb. The thermal quenching was improved. PL intensity of Yb-related emission was decreased. We studied the transfer energy and the optical sensitization of Yb ions co-implanted with Er ions in Al0.70Ga0.30As. Energy transfers from 2F5/2 (the first excited state) → 2F7/2 (the ground state) of Yb3+ to 4I13/2 (the first excited state) → 4I15/2 (the ground state) of Er3+ were observed by PL excitation (PLE) and selectively excited PL (SPL).