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The role of fire in the management of degraded areas remains strongly debated. Here we experimentally compare removal and infestation of popcorn kernels (Zea mays L. – Poaceae) and açaí fruits (Euterpe oleracea Mart. – Arecaceae) in one burned and two unburned savanna habitats in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. In each habitat, a total of ten experimental units (five per seed type) were installed, each with three treatments: (1) open access, (2) vertebrate access, and (3) invertebrate access. Generalized linear models showed significant differences in both seed removal (P < 0.0001) and infestation (P < 0.0001) among seed type, habitats and access treatments. Burned savanna had the highest overall seed infestation rate (24.3%) and invertebrate access increased açaí seed infestation levels to 100% in the burned savanna. Increased levels of invertebrate seed infestation in burned savanna suggest that preparation burning may be of limited use for the management and restoration of such habitats in tropical regions.
Deaf people communicate naturally using visual-spatial languages, called sign languages (SL). Although SLs are recognized as a language in many countries, the problems faced by Deaf people for accessing information remain. As a result, they have difficulties exercising their citizenship and access information in SLs, which usually leads to linguistic and knowledge acquisition delays. Some scientific works have been developed to address these problems related to the machine translation of spoken languages to sign languages. However, the existing machine translation platforms have some limitations, especially in syntactic and lexical nature. Thus, this work aims to develop a mechanism for machine translation to Libras, the Brazilian Sign Language, with syntactic-semantic adequacy. It consists of an automatic translation component for Libras based on syntactic-semantic translation rules and a formal syntactic-semantic rule description language. As proof of concept of the proposed approach, we created a specific grammar for Libras translation exploring these aspects and integrating these elements into VLibras Suite, a service for machine translation of digital content in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) to Libras. We performed several tests using this modified version of VLibras to measure the level of comprehension of the output generated by the new translator mechanism. In the computational experiments, as well as in the actual tests with Deaf and hearing users, the proposed approach was able to improve the results of the current VLibras version.
We hypothesize that exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins, measured in serum, alters protein synthesis, reducing serum protein and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), increasing inflammation and infection, leading to child linear growth failure.
Children 6-35 months, stratified by baseline stunting, were subsampled from an intervention trial on quality protein maize consumption and evaluated at two time points.
Blood samples and anthropometric data were collected in the pre-harvest (August-September 2015) and post-harvest (February 2016) seasons in rural Ethiopia.
102 children (50 stunted and 52 non-stunted).
Proportions of children exposed to aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, and aflatoxin M1 were higher in the pre-harvest (8%, 33%, and 7%, respectively) compared to post-harvest season (4%, 28%, and 4%, respectively). The proportion of children exposed to any aflatoxin was higher in the pre-harvest than post-harvest season (51% vs. 41%). Fumonisin exposure ranged from 0-11%. In joint statistical tests, aflatoxin exposure was associated with serum biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, α-1-glycoprotein) and protein status (transthyretin, lysine, tryptophan), IGF-1, and linear growth (all p<0.01). However, exposure to specific aflatoxins was not significantly associated with any biomarkers or outcomes (all p>0.05).
Aflatoxin exposure among rural Ethiopian children was high, with large variation between seasons and individual aflatoxins. Fumonisin exposure was low. There was no clear association between aflatoxin exposure and protein status, inflammation, or linear growth. A larger study may be needed to examine potential biological interactions, and assessment of aflatoxins in food is needed to determine sources of high exposure.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed that can emerge throughout the soybean growing season in Nebraska and several other regions of the United States. Late-emerging Palmer amaranth plants can produce seeds, thus replenishing the soil seedbank. The objectives of this study were to evaluate single or sequential applications of labeled POST herbicides such as acifluorfen, dicamba, a fomesafen and fluthiacet-methyl premix, glyphosate, and lactofen on GR Palmer amaranth control, density, biomass, seed production, and seed viability, as well as grain yield of dicamba- and glyphosate-resistant (DGR) soybean. Field experiments were conducted in a grower’s field infested with GR Palmer amaranth near Carleton, NE, in 2018 and 2019, with no PRE herbicide applied. Acifluorfen, dicamba, a premix of fomesafen and fluthiacet-methyl, glyphosate, or lactofen were applied POST in single or sequential applications between the V4 and R6 soybean growth stages, with timings based on product labels. Dicamba applied at V4 or in sequential applications at V4 followed by R1 or R3 controlled GR Palmer amaranth 91% to 100% at soybean harvest, reduced Palmer amaranth density to as low as 2 or fewer plants m−2, reduced seed production to 557 to 2,911 seeds per female plant, and resulted in the highest soybean yield during both years of the study. Sequential applications of acifluorfen, fomesafen and fluthiacet premix, or lactofen were not as effective as dicamba for GR Palmer amaranth control; however, they reduced seed production similar to dicamba. On the basis of the results of this study, we conclude that dicamba was effective for controlling GR Palmer amaranth and reduced density, biomass, and seed production without DGR soybean injury. Herbicides evaluated in this study had no effect on Palmer amaranth seed viability.
The consumption of fructose has increased in children and adolescents and is partially responsible for the high incidence of metabolic diseases. The lifestyle during postnatal development can result in altered metabolic programming, thereby impairing the reproductive system and fertility during adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fructose diet in the male reproductive system of pubertal and adult rats. Male Wistar rats (30 d old) were assigned to four different groups: Fr30, which received fructose (20%) in water for 30 d and were euthanized at postnatal day (PND) 60; Re-Fr30, which received fructose (20%) for 30 d and were euthanized at PND 120; and two control groups C30 and Re-C30, which received water ad libitum and were euthanized at PND 60 and 120, respectively. Fructose induced an increase in abnormal seminiferous tubules with epithelial vacuoles, degeneration, and immature cells in the lumen. Moreover, Fr30 rats showed altered spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as increased serum testosterone concentrations. After discontinuing high-fructose consumption, DSP and sperm number decreased significantly. We observed tissue remodeling in the epididymis, with a reduction in stromal and epithelial compartments that might have influenced sperm motility. Therefore, we concluded that fructose intake in peripubertal rats led to changes in the reproductive system observed both during puberty and adulthood.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
Most earthen burial mounds of eastern North America have been destroyed—or have they? We review geophysical methods for assessing whether leveled mounds retain intact deposits or features. Magnetic survey holds promise for locating and evaluating leveled mounds because it is rapid and sensitive to magnetic variations associated with anticipated features such as pits and deposits of mound fill. As a case study, we discuss our magnetic survey of the Gast Farm site (13LA12) in eastern Iowa. The survey covered 8.64 ha, encompassing loci of one previously reported mound and possible geometric earthworks as well as Middle and Late Woodland habitation areas. Interpretation of survey results incorporated quantitative differentiation of magnetic anomaly types using GIS techniques, along with standard visual inspection. We found no evidence of geometric earthworks but identified at least six leveled mounds. Displaced mound fill appears to account for the earthwork-like features. We conclude that leveled mounds are detectable and may retain subsurface integrity. Their associated features, including burials, may be identifiable even when above-ground evidence has disappeared.
Maternal antenatal depression strongly influences child mental health but with considerable inter-individual variation that is, in part, linked to genotype. The challenge is to effectively capture the genotypic influence. We outline a novel approach to describe genomic susceptibility to maternal antenatal depression focusing on child emotional/behavioral difficulties. Two cohorts provided measures of maternal depression, child genetic variation, and child mental health symptoms. We constructed a conventional polygenic risk score (PRS) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (PRSADHD) that significantly moderated the association between maternal antenatal depression and internalizing problems at 60 months (p = 2.94 × 10−4, R2 = .18). We then constructed an interaction PRS (xPRS) based on a subset of those single nucleotide polymorphisms from the PRSADHD that most accounted for the moderation of the association between maternal antenatal depression and child outcome. The interaction between maternal antenatal depression and this xPRS accounted for a larger proportion of the variance in child emotional/behavioral problems than models based on any PRSADHD (p = 5.50 × 10−9, R2 = .27), with similar findings in the replication cohort. The xPRS was significantly enriched for genes involved in neuronal development and synaptic function. Our study illustrates a novel approach to the study of genotypic moderation on the impact of maternal antenatal depression on child mental health and highlights the utility of the xPRS approach. These findings advance our understanding of individual differences in the developmental origins of mental health.
Olfactory dysfunction represents one of the most frequent symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019, affecting about 70 per cent of patients. However, the pathogenesis of the olfactory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 has not yet been elucidated.
This report presents the radiological and histopathological findings of a patient who presented with anosmia persisting for more than three months after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2.
The biopsy demonstrated significant disruption of the olfactory epithelium. This shifts the focus away from invasion of the olfactory bulb and encourages further studies of treatments targeted at the surface epithelium.
The consumer food environment is changing: an extensive variety of foods are now available in most markets, offering palatability, convenience and novelty. However, little is known about the availability and advertising of food items within food outlets, especially among developing countries. The present study examined these dimensions in 281 food outlets located around eighteen primary healthcare services in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2013. These establishments were classified as large-chain supermarkets; specialised fruits and vegetable (F&V) markets; and local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Availability of F&V, availability of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and food advertising were compared across the food outlet categories by applying the χ2 test. Almost 60 % of the food outlets were specialised F&V markets, 21⋅4 % were large-chain supermarkets and 19⋅2 % were local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Almost 80 % contained at least eight types of fruits and vegetables, and 60 % contained UPF. Food advertisement was absent in 59⋅8 % of the food outlets, 19⋅6 % were advertising only F&V and 17⋅4 % were advertising only UPF. Higher F&V availability was noted inside specialised F&V markets and large-chain supermarkets than local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries. Advertising of F&V was more common within specialised F&V markets. However, large-chain supermarkets and local grocery stores, convenience stores or bakeries contained more frequent UPF food advertising isolated: 38⋅3 and 35⋅2 %, respectively. Therefore, the availability and advertising of food items within food outlets around primary healthcare services are different according to the type of food outlet.
The aim was to analyse invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) serotypes in children aged ⩽17 years according to clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility. We conducted a prospective study (January 2012–June 2016). IPD cases were diagnosed by culture and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographic, microbiological and clinical data were analysed. Associations were assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 253 cases, 34.4% were aged <2 years, 38.7% 2–4 years and 26.9% 5–17 years. Over 64% were 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes. 48% of the cases were diagnosed only by real-time PCR. Serotypes 3 and 1 were associated with complicated pneumonia (P < 0.05) and non-PCV13 serotypes with meningitis (OR 7.32, 95% CI 2.33–22.99) and occult bacteraemia (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.56–8.76). Serotype 19A was more frequent in children aged <2 years and serotypes 3 and 1 in children aged 2–4 years and 5–17 years, respectively. 36.1% of cases were not susceptible to penicillin and 16.4% were also non-susceptible to cefotaxime. Serotypes 14, 24F and 23B were associated with non-susceptibility to penicillin (P < 0.05) and serotypes 11, 14 and 19A to cefotaxime (P < 0.05). Serotype 19A showed resistance to penicillin (P = 0.002). In conclusion, PCV13 serotypes were most frequent in children aged ⩽17 years, mainly serotypes 3, 1 and 19A. Non-PCV13 serotypes were associated with meningitis and occult bacteraemia and PCV13 serotypes with pneumonia. Non-susceptibility to antibiotics of non-PCV13 serotypes should be monitored.
This study aimed to analyse social, health and environmental factors associated with the development of chronic otitis media by age nine.
This was a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of 6560 children, reviewed at age nine. Chronic otitis media defined as previous surgical history or video-otoscopic changes of tympanic membrane retraction, perforation or cholesteatoma. Non-affected children were used as the control group.
Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between chronic otitis media and otorrhoea, snoring, grommet insertion, adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, hearing loss, abnormal tympanograms and preterm birth. Multivariate analysis suggests many of these factors may be interrelated.
The association between chronic otitis media and otorrhoea, abnormal tympanograms and grommets supports the role of the Eustachian tube and otitis media (with effusion or acute) in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. The role of snoring, adenoidectomy and tonsillectomy is unclear. Associations suggested by previous studies (sex, socioeconomic group, parental smoking, maternal education, childcare, crowding and siblings) were not found to be significant predictors in this analysis.
The prevalence of psychotic experiences (PEs) is higher in low-and-middle-income-countries (LAMIC) than in high-income countries (HIC). Here, we examine whether this effect is explicable by measurement bias.
A community sample from 13 countries (N = 7141) was used to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of a frequently used self-report measure of PEs, the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), in LAMIC (n = 2472) and HIC (n = 4669). The CAPE measures positive (e.g. hallucinations), negative (e.g. avolition) and depressive symptoms. MI analyses were conducted with multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses.
MI analyses showed similarities in the structure and understanding of the CAPE factors between LAMIC and HIC. Partial scalar invariance was found, allowing for latent score comparisons. Residual invariance was not found, indicating that sum score comparisons are biased. A comparison of latent scores before and after MI adjustment showed both overestimation (e.g. avolition, d = 0.03 into d = −0.42) and underestimation (e.g. magical thinking, d = −0.03 into d = 0.33) of PE in LAMIC relative to HIC. After adjusting the CAPE for MI, participants from LAMIC reported significantly higher levels on most CAPE factors but a significantly lower level of avolition.
Previous studies using sum scores to compare differences across countries are likely to be biased. The direction of the bias involves both over- and underestimation of PEs in LAMIC compared to HIC. Nevertheless, the study confirms the basic finding that PEs are more frequent in LAMIC than in HIC.
The transgenic Liberty Link® (LL) soybean is tolerant to glufosinate, conferred by the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), which is encoded by the pat gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Because symptoms of injury can be observed in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plants in some situations, this study evaluated the effects of rates of glufosinate on agronomic performance; quality of LL soybean seeds; and the ammonia, glufosinate, and N-acetyl-l-glufosinate concentration (NAG) in soybeans with and without the pat gene after application of increasing glufosinate rates. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted; the first evaluated the selectivity of glufosinate in LL soybeans, and the second evaluated the metabolic changes in soybeans with (LL) and without (RR2) the pat gene, after application of glufosinate. For fieldwork, application of glufosinate at rates up to four times the maximum recommended caused initial injury symptoms (up to 38.5%) in LL soybean plants. However, no negative effect was found on seed quality and agronomic performance of LL plants, including yield. This shows the selectivity of glufosinate promoted by pat gene insertion for application in POST (V4), in LL soybean. For the greenhouse experiment, it was concluded that the LL soybean plants presented high glufosinate metabolism, lower ammonia concentration, and no reduction in dry matter, in comparison with RR2 soybean, after application of high rates of glufosinate.
Background: Based on data obtained from hospitals in the city of Belo Horizonte (population ~3,000,000), we evaluated relevant factors such as death, age, duration of surgery, potential for contamination and surgical site infection, plastic surgery, and craniotomy. The possibility of predicting surgical site infection (SSI) was then analyzed using pattern recognition algorithms based on MLP (multilayer perceptron). Methods: Data were collected by the hospital infection control committees (CCIHs) in hospitals in Belo Horizonte between 2016 and 2018. The noisy records were filtered, and the occurrences were analyzed. Finally, the predictive power of SSI of 5 types MLP was evaluated experimentally: momentum, backpropagation standard, weight decay, resilient propagation, and quick propagation. The model used 3, 5, 7, and 10 neurons in the occult layer and with resamples varied the number of records for testing (65% and 75%) and for validation (35% and 25%). Comparisons were made by measuring the AUC (area under the curve (range, 0–1). Results: From 1,096 records of craniotomy, 289 were usable for analysis. Moreover, 16% died; averaged age was 56 years (range, 40–65); mean time of surgery was 186 minutes (range, 95–250 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (90.6%) to 8 (0.3%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 2.7% contaminated, 23.5% potentially contaminated, 72.3% clean. The SSI rate reached 4%. The prediction process in AUCs ranged from 0.7 to 0.994. In plastic surgery, from 3,693 records, 1,099 were intact, with only 1 case of SSI and no deaths. The average age for plastic surgery was 41 years (range, 16–91); the average time of surgery was 218.5 minutes (range, 19–580 minutes); the number of hospitalizations ranged from 1 (77.4%) to 6 times (0.001%). Contamination among these cases was rated as follows: 27.90% potential contamination, 1.67% contaminated, and 0.84% infected. The prediction process ranged in AUCs from 0.2 to 0.4. Conclusions: We identified a high noise index in both surgeries due to subjectivity at the time of data collection. The profiles of each surgery in the statistical analyses were different, which was reflected in the analyzed structures. The MLP for craniotomy surgery demonstrated relevant predictive power and can guide intelligent monitoring software (available in www.sacihweb.com). However, for plastic surgeries, MLPs need more SSI samples to optimize outcomes. To optimize data collection and to enable other hospitals to use the SSI prediction tool, a mobile application was developed.
Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome (GLUT1 DS) (OMIM 606777) is a disorder of brain energy metabolism caused by insufficient transport of glucose from the blood to the brain. The first patients were reported by De Vivo et al. in 1991 (hence the disorder is also referred to as De Vivo syndrome). The original patients presented with an early infantile-onset developmental encephalopathy associated with seizures, acquired microcephaly, low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose and lactate concentrations, and a decreased uptake of glucose by isolated erythrocytes in vitro .
As pharmacological management is dissatisfying in many metabolic movement disorders, neurosurgical procedures have been attempted to alleviate the most disabling symptoms, which are often severe dystonia, chorea, tremor, and self-mutilating behavior. These neurosurgical procedures include ablative procedures and deep brain stimulation (DBS), typically targeting the basal ganglia.
The chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are considered a serious public health problem. The objective was investigating the association of DM with the anthropometric measures, biochemical profile and dietary intake in patients with CKD. Is a cross-sectional study done in 2017, with 51 patients previously diagnosed with CKD. We collect socio-demographic, lifestyle variables, anthropometric measurements, biochemical profile and dietary intake. We using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, followed by Pearson's χ2 test and Student's t test. Data were analysed using several multivariable logistic regression models, including the socio-demographic, anthropometric, dietary intake and biochemical variable. Variables with P ≤ 0⋅20 in the univariate analyses were selected and kept in the block in the simple and multiple logistic regression analysis, to determine the differences between the categories and the factors associated with the presence of DM or not, remaining in the model final, only the significant variables (P ≤ 0⋅05). Each variable was adjusted for all other variables included in the univariate analysis. The strength of the association was assessed by the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The multivariate logistic regression analysis evidenced that the increase of 1 cm in waist circumference and 1 mg/dl in VLDL-c values increases the chance of DM, respectively, by 8⋅4% (OR 1⋅076; P 0⋅05) and 8⋅8% (OR 1⋅102; P 0⋅01). In contrast, an increase of 1 mg/dl in total cholesterol decreases the chance of developing DM by 3⋅1% (OR 0⋅965; P 0⋅01), that is, it becomes a protective factor. The present study identified the associations between overweight, dietary intake and biochemical tests.
This is a cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in the baseline of the Longitudinal Study on the Lifestyle and Health of University Students (n 685) carried out in a public Brazilian university. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Dietary patterns (DP) for breakfast, lunch and dinner were identified using principal component analysis. Generalised linear models were used to analyse the variables associated with each DP. Three DP were extracted for each meal: breakfast: ‘White bread and butter/margarine’, ‘Coffee and tea’ and ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’; lunch: ‘Traditional’, ‘Western’ and ‘Vegetarian’ and dinner: ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’, ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’. Students who had meals at the campus showed greater adherence to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 1·15, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·19) and ‘Coffee and tea’ (exp (βadj) = 1·06, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·10) breakfast patterns; ‘Western’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·04, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·08) and to the ‘Beans, rice and processed juice’ dinner pattern (exp (βadj) = 1·10, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14). Having meals at the campus was associated with lower adherence to the ‘Sausages, whole wheat bread and cheese’ breakfast pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·89, 0·97), ‘Traditional’ lunch pattern (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and to the ‘White bread and butter/margarine’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) and ‘White meat, eggs and natural juice’ (exp (βadj) = 0·96, 95 % CI 0·93, 0·99) dinner pattern. The food environment at campus may influence students’ DP. Recognising meal eating patterns is important to support healthy eating promotion strategies on campus. Adjustments in the University Canteen menu could contribute to healthier eating choices among students.