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Patients diagnosed with mental health problems are more predisposed to cardiovascular disease, including cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, health outcomes after cardiac surgery for patients with mental health problems as a discrete group are unknown. This study examined the association between secondary care mental health service use and postoperative health outcomes following cardiac surgery.
We conducted a retrospective observational research, utilizing data from a large South London mental healthcare supplier linked to national hospitalization data. OPCS-4 codes were applied to classify cardiac surgery. Health results were compared between those individuals with a mental health disorder diagnosis from secondary care and other local residents, including the length of hospital stay (LOS), inpatient mortality, and 30-day emergency hospital readmission.
Twelve thousand three hundred and eighty-four patients received cardiac surgery, including 1,481 with a mental disorder diagnosis. Patients with mental health diagnosis were at greater risk of emergency admissions for cardiac surgery (odds ratio [OR] 1.60; 1.43, 1.79), longer index LOS (incidence rate ratio 1.28; 1.26, 1.30), and at higher risk of 30-day emergency readmission (OR 1.53; 1.31, 1.78). Those who underwent pacemaker insertion and major open surgery had worse postoperative outcomes during index surgery hospital admission while those who had major endovascular surgery had worse health outcomes subsequent 30-day emergency hospital readmission.
People with a mental health disorder diagnosis undertaking cardiac surgery have significantly worse health outcomes. Personalized guidelines and policies to manage preoperative risk factors require consideration and evaluation.
Amiodarone may be considered for patients with junctional ectopic tachycardia refractory to treatment with sedation, analgesia, cooling, and electrolyte replacements. There are currently no published pediatric data regarding the hemodynamic effects of the newer amiodarone formulation, PM101, devoid of hypotensive agents used in the original amiodarone formulation. We performed a single-center, retrospective, descriptive study from January 2012 to December 2020 in a pediatric ICU. Thirty-three patients were included (22 male and 11 female) between the ages of 1.1 and 1,460 days who developed post-operative junctional ectopic tachycardia or other tachyarrhythmias requiring PM101. Data analysis was performed on hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressures and heart rate) and total PM101 (mg/kg) from hour 0 of amiodarone administration to hour 72. Adverse outcomes were defined as Vasoactive-Inotropic Score >20, patients requiring ECMO or CPR, or patient death. There was no statistically significant decrease in mean arterial pressures within the 6 hours of PM101 administration (p > 0.05), but there was a statistically significant therapeutic decrease in heart rate for resolution of tachyarrhythmia (p < 0.05). Patients received up to 25 mg/kg in an 8-hour time for rate control. Average rate control was achieved within 11.91 hours and average rhythm control within 62 hours. There were four adverse events around the time of PM101 administration, with three determined to not be associated with the medication. PM101 is safe and effective in the pediatric cardiac surgical population. Our study demonstrated that PM101 can be used in a more aggressive dosing regimen than previously reported in pediatric literature with the prior formulation.
Predictive values of multiple serum biomarkers for suicidal behaviours (SBs) have rarely been tested. This study sought to evaluate and develop a panel of multiple serum biomarkers for predicting SBs in outpatients receiving a 12-month pharmacotherapy programme for depressive disorders.
At baseline, 14 serum biomarkers and socio-demographic/clinical characteristics including previous suicidal attempt and present suicidal severity were evaluated in 1094 patients with depressive disorders without a bipolar diagnosis. Of these, 884 were followed for increased suicidal severity and fatal/non-fatal suicide attempt outcomes over a 12-month treatment period. Individual and combined effects of serum biomarkers on these two prospective SBs were estimated using logistic regression analysis after adjustment for relevant covariates.
Increased suicidal severity and fatal/non-fatal suicide attempt during the 12-month pharmacotherapy were present in 155 (17.5%) and 38 (4.3%) participants, respectively. Combined cortisol, total cholesterol, and folate serum biomarkers predicted fatal/non-fatal suicide attempt, and these with interleukin-1 beta and homocysteine additionally predicted increased suicidal severity, with clear gradients robust to adjustment (p values < 0.001).
Application of multiple serum biomarkers could considerably improve the predictability of SBs during the outpatient treatment of depressive disorders, potentially highlighting the need for more frequent monitoring and risk appraisal.
People with serious mental illness (SMI) experience higher mortality partially attributable to higher long-term condition (LTC) prevalence. However, little is known about multiple LTCs (MLTCs) clustering in this population.
People from South London with SMI and two or more existing LTCs aged 18+ at diagnosis were included using linked primary and mental healthcare records, 2012–2020. Latent class analysis (LCA) determined MLTC classes and multinominal logistic regression examined associations between demographic/clinical characteristics and latent class membership.
The sample included 1924 patients (mean (s.d.) age 48.2 (17.3) years). Five latent classes were identified: ‘substance related’ (24.9%), ‘atopic’ (24.2%), ‘pure affective’ (30.4%), ‘cardiovascular’ (14.1%), and ‘complex multimorbidity’ (6.4%). Patients had on average 7–9 LTCs in each cluster. Males were at increased odds of MLTCs in all four clusters, compared to the ‘pure affective’. Compared to the largest cluster (‘pure affective’), the ‘substance related’ and the ‘atopic’ clusters were younger [odds ratios (OR) per year increase 0.99 (95% CI 0.98–1.00) and 0.96 (0.95–0.97) respectively], and the ‘cardiovascular’ and ‘complex multimorbidity’ clusters were older (ORs 1.09 (1.07–1.10) and 1.16 (1.14–1.18) respectively). The ‘substance related’ cluster was more likely to be White, the ‘cardiovascular’ cluster more likely to be Black (compared to White; OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.10–2.79), and both more likely to have schizophrenia, compared to other clusters.
The current study identified five latent class MLTC clusters among patients with SMI. An integrated care model for treating MLTCs in this population is recommended to improve multimorbidity care.
One prominent criticism of the abstractionist program is the so-called Bad Company objection. The complaint is that abstraction principles cannot in general be a legitimate way to introduce mathematical theories, since some of them are inconsistent. The most notorious example, of course, is Frege’s Basic Law V. A common response to the objection suggests that an abstraction principle can be used to legitimately introduce a mathematical theory precisely when it is stable: when it can be made true on all sufficiently large domains. In this paper, we raise a worry for this response to the Bad Company objection. We argue, perhaps surprisingly, that it requires very strong assumptions about the range of the second-order quantifiers; assumptions that the abstractionist should reject.
Deutetrabenazine is FDA-approved for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults. In two 12-week pivotal trials (ARM-TD/AIM-TD), deutetrabenazine significantly improved Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores and was well-tolerated. This post hoc analysis examined the efficacy and safety of long-term deutetrabenazine treatment in TD patients with comorbid psychiatric illness, including schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and mood disorders (bipolar/depression/other).
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD enrolled in the 3-year, open-label extension (OLE) study. Deutetrabenazine was titrated based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. Change from baseline in total motor AIMS score, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), and adverse events (AEs) were analyzed in subgroups by comorbid psychiatric illness.
A total of 337 patients in the OLE study were included in the analysis: 205 patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (mean age, 55 years; 50% male; 6.4 years since diagnosis; 92% taking DRA) and 131 patients with mood disorders (mean age, 60 years; 35% male; 4.6 years since diagnosis; 50% taking DRA). At week 145, mean ± SE dose was 40.4 ± 1.1 mg/day for schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 88) and 38.5 ± 1.2 mg/day for mood disorders (n = 72). Mean ± SE change from baseline in AIMS score at week 145 was −6.3 ± 0.49 and −7.1 ± 0.58, 56% and 72% achieved PGIC treatment success, and 66% and 82% achieved CGIC treatment success in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and mood disorder patients, respectively. Overall AE incidence (exposure-adjusted incidence rates [incidence/patient-years]) was low: any, 1.02 and 1.71; serious, 0.10 and 0.12; leading to discontinuation, 0.07 and 0.05).
Long-term deutetrabenazine treatment provided clinically meaningful improvements in TD-related movements, with a favorable safety profile, regardless of underlying comorbid psychiatric illness.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder that can result from exposure to dopamine-receptor antagonists (DRAs). Deutetrabenazine demonstrated significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores in the 12-week pivotal trials (ARM-TD/AIM-TD). This post hoc analysis assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of deutetrabenazine by baseline DRA use.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD enrolled in the 3-year, open-label extension (OLE) study, with deutetrabenazine dose titrated based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. Change from baseline in total motor AIMS score, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), and adverse event (AE) rates were analyzed in subgroups by baseline DRA use.
Of 337 patients in the OLE study, 254 were taking DRAs at baseline (mean age, 56 years; 48% male; 6.0 years since diagnosis) and 83 were not (mean age, 60 years; 31% male; 4.9 years since diagnosis). Mean ± SE dose at week 145 was 39.9 ± 1.0 mg/day in patients taking DRAs (n = 108) and 38.5 ± 1.5 mg/day in patients not taking DRAs (n = 53). At week 145, mean ± SE change from baseline in AIMS score was −6.1 ± 0.43 and −7.5 ± 0.71; 64% and 62% achieved PGIC treatment success; and 69% and 81% achieved CGIC treatment success, respectively. Overall AE incidence was low (exposure-adjusted incidence rates [incidence/patient-years]: any, 1.08 and 1.97; serious, 0.10 and 0.12; leading to discontinuation, 0.06 and 0.05).
This analysis suggests that deutetrabenazine for long-term treatment of TD is beneficial, with a favorable safety profile, regardless of concomitant DRA use.
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Petach Tikva, Israel
To investigate factors associated with suicidal ideation (SI) around the time of dementia diagnosis. We hypothesised relatively preserved cognition, co-occurring physical and psychiatric disorders, functional impairments, and dementia diagnosis subtype would be associated with a higher risk of SI.
Cross-sectional study using routinely collected electronic mental healthcare records.
National Health Service secondary mental healthcare services in South London, UK, serving a population of over 1.36 million residents.
Patients who received a diagnosis of dementia (Alzheimer’s, vascular, mixed Alzheimer’s/vascular, or dementia with Lewy bodies) between 1 Nov 2007–31 Oct 2021: 18,252 people were identified during the observation period.
A natural language processing algorithm was used to identify recorded clinician recording of SI around the time of dementia diagnosis. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were also measured around the time of diagnosis. We compared people diagnosed with non-Alzheimer’s dementia to those with Alzheimer’s and used statistical models to adjust for putative confounders.
15.1% of patients had recorded SI, which was more common in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to other dementia diagnoses studied. After adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors, SI was more frequent in those with depression and dementia with Lewy bodies and less common in those with impaired activities of daily living and in vascular dementia. Agitated behavior and hallucinations were not associated with SI in the final model.
Our findings highlight the importance of identifying and treating depressive symptoms in people with dementia and the need for further research into under-researched dementia subtypes.
The rate of normal birth outcomes (i.e. full-term births without intervention) for women with severe mental illness (SMI – psychotic and bipolar disorders) is not known. We examined rates of birth without intervention (spontaneous labour onset, spontaneous vaginal delivery without instruments, no episiotomy and no indication of pre- or post-delivery anaesthesia) in women with SMI (584 pregnancies) compared with a control population (70 942 pregnancies). Outcome ratios were calculated standardising for age. Women with SMI were less likely to have a birth without intervention (29.5%) relative to the control population (36.8%) (standardised outcome ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.87).
Monoclonal antibody therapeutics to treat coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). Many barriers exist when deploying a novel therapeutic during an ongoing pandemic, and it is critical to assess the needs of incorporating monoclonal antibody infusions into pandemic response activities. We examined the monoclonal antibody infusion site process during the COVID-19 pandemic and conducted a descriptive analysis using data from 3 sites at medical centers in the United States supported by the National Disaster Medical System. Monoclonal antibody implementation success factors included engagement with local medical providers, therapy batch preparation, placing the infusion center in proximity to emergency services, and creating procedures resilient to EUA changes. Infusion process challenges included confirming patient severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity, strained staff, scheduling, and pharmacy coordination. Infusion sites are effective when integrated into pre-existing pandemic response ecosystems and can be implemented with limited staff and physical resources.
Research suggests that an increased risk of physical comorbidities might have a key role in the association between severe mental illness (SMI) and disability. We examined the association between physical multimorbidity and disability in individuals with SMI.
Data were extracted from the clinical record interactive search system at South London and Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre. Our sample (n = 13,933) consisted of individuals who had received a primary or secondary SMI diagnosis between 2007 and 2018 and had available data for Health of Nations Outcome Scale (HoNOS) as disability measure. Physical comorbidities were defined using Chapters II–XIV of the International Classification of Diagnoses (ICD-10).
More than 60 % of the sample had complex multimorbidity. The most common organ system affected were neurological (34.7%), dermatological (15.4%), and circulatory (14.8%). All specific comorbidities (ICD-10 Chapters) were associated with higher levels of disability, HoNOS total scores. Individuals with musculoskeletal, skin/dermatological, respiratory, endocrine, neurological, hematological, or circulatory disorders were found to be associated with significant difficulties associated with more than five HoNOS domains while others had a lower number of domains affected.
Individuals with SMI and musculoskeletal, skin/dermatological, respiratory, endocrine, neurological, hematological, or circulatory disorders are at higher risk of disability compared to those who do not have those comorbidities. Individuals with SMI and physical comorbidities are at greater risk of reporting difficulties associated with activities of daily living, hallucinations, and cognitive functioning. Therefore, these should be targeted for prevention and intervention programs.
We describe the incidence of suicidality (2007–2017) in people with depression treated by secondary mental healthcare services at South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (n = 26 412). We estimated yearly incidence of ‘suicidal ideation’ and ‘high risk of suicide’ from structured and free-text fields of the Clinical Record Interactive Search system. The incidence of suicidal ideation increased from 0.6 (2007) to 1 cases (2017) per 1000 population. The incidence of high risk of suicide, based on risk forms, varied between 0.06 and 0.50 cases per 1000 adult population (2008–2017). Electronic health records provide the opportunity to examine suicidality on a large scale, but the impact of service-related changes in the use of structured risk assessment should be considered.
Catatonia, a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome, has few studies of sufficient scale to clarify its epidemiology or pathophysiology. We aimed to characterise demographic associations, peripheral inflammatory markers and outcome of catatonia.
Electronic healthcare records were searched for validated clinical diagnoses of catatonia. In a case–control study, demographics and inflammatory markers were compared in psychiatric inpatients with and without catatonia. In a cohort study, the two groups were compared in terms of their duration of admission and mortality.
We identified 1456 patients with catatonia (of whom 25.1% had two or more episodes) and 24 956 psychiatric inpatients without catatonia. Incidence was 10.6 episodes of catatonia per 100 000 person-years. Patients with and without catatonia were similar in sex, younger and more likely to be of Black ethnicity. Serum iron was reduced in patients with catatonia [11.6 v. 14.2 μmol/L, odds ratio (OR) 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45–0.95), p = 0.03] and creatine kinase was raised [2545 v. 459 IU/L, OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.29–1.81), p < 0.001], but there was no difference in C-reactive protein or white cell count. N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibodies were significantly associated with catatonia, but there were small numbers of positive results. Duration of hospitalisation was greater in the catatonia group (median: 43 v. 25 days), but there was no difference in mortality after adjustment.
In the largest clinical study of catatonia, we found catatonia occurred in approximately 1 per 10 000 person-years. Evidence for a proinflammatory state was mixed. Catatonia was associated with prolonged inpatient admission but not with increased mortality.
People with serious mental illness (SMI) have a significantly shorter life expectancy than the general population. This study investigates whether the mortality rate in this group has changed over the last decade.
Using Clinical Record Interactive Search software, we extracted data from a large electronic database of patients in South East London. All patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder from 2008 to 2012 and/or 2013 to 2017 were included. Estimates of life expectancy at birth, standardised mortality ratios and causes of death were obtained for each cohort according to diagnosis and gender. Comparisons were made between cohorts and with the general population using data obtained from the UK Office of National Statistics.
In total, 26 005 patients were included. In men, life expectancy was greater in 2013–2017 (64.9 years; 95% CI 63.6–66.3) than in 2008–2012 (63.2 years; 95% CI 61.5–64.9). Similarly, in women, life expectancy was greater in 2013–2017 (69.1 years; 95% CI 67.5–70.7) than in 2008–2012 (68.1 years; 95% CI 66.2–69.9). The difference with general population life expectancy fell by 0.9 years between cohorts in men, and 0.5 years in women. In the 2013–2017 cohorts, cancer accounted for a similar proportion of deaths as cardiovascular disease.
Relative to the general population, life expectancy for people with SMI is still much worse, though it appears to be improving. The increased cancer-related mortality suggests that physical health monitoring should consider including cancer as well.
Growing evidence suggests that air pollution exposure may adversely affect the brain and increase risk for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. However, little is known about the potential role of air pollution in severity and relapse following illness onset.
To examine the longitudinal association between residential air pollution exposure and mental health service use (an indicator of illness severity and relapse) among individuals with first presentations of psychotic and mood disorders.
We identified individuals aged ≥15 years who had first contact with the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust for psychotic and mood disorders in 2008–2012 (n = 13 887). High-resolution (20 × 20 m) estimates of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) levels in ambient air were linked to residential addresses. In-patient days and community mental health service (CMHS) events were recorded over 1-year and 7-year follow-up periods.
Following covariate adjustment, interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx and PM2.5 were associated with 18% (95% CI 5–34%), 18% (95% CI 5–34%) and 11% (95% CI 3–19%) increased risk for in-patient days after 1 year. Similarly, interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with 32% (95% CI 25–38%), 31% (95% CI 24–37%), 7% (95% CI 4–11%) and 9% (95% CI 5–14%) increased risk for CMHS events after 1 year. Associations persisted after 7 years.
Residential air pollution exposure is associated with increased mental health service use among people recently diagnosed with psychotic and mood disorders. Assuming causality, interventions to reduce air pollution exposure could improve mental health prognoses and reduce healthcare costs.
To support safe prescribing of antipsychotics in dementia, antipsychotic monitoring forms were embedded into our electronic health records. We present a review of the data collected on these forms to assess prescribing and identify areas for improvement in our practice and processes. Data were extracted from the structured fields of antipsychotic initiation and review forms completed between 1 January 2018 and 31 January 2020.
We identified gaps in practice where improvements could be made, mainly with regard to physical health monitoring (and particularly electrocardiograms, performed in only 50% of patients) and the low (less than 50%) recorded use of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. In addition, antipsychotic treatment was continued despite lack of benefit in almost 10% of reviews.
We advocate for recommendations on physical health monitoring of people with dementia taking antipsychotics to be added to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance on dementia and the Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health (POMH-UK) national audit.