To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Glacier basal motion is responsible for the majority of ice flux on fast-flowing glaciers, enables rapid changes in glacier motion and provides the means by which glaciers shape alpine landscapes. In an effort to enhance our understanding of basal motion, we investigate the evolution of glacier velocity and ice-marginal lake stage on Kennicott Glacier, Alaska, during the spring–summer transition, a time when subglacial drainage is undergoing rapid change. A complicated record of > 50 m fill-and-drain sequences on a hydraulically-connected ice-marginal lake likely reflects the punctuated establishment of efficient subglacial drainage as the melt season begins. The rate of change of lake stage generally correlates with diurnal velocity maxima, both in timing and magnitude. At the seasonal scale, the up-glacier progression of enhanced summer basal motion promotes uniformity of daily glacier velocity fluctuations throughout the 10 km study reach, and results in diurnal velocity patterns suggesting increasingly efficient meltwater delivery to and drainage from the subglacial channel system. Our findings suggest the potential of using an ice-marginal lake as a proxy for subglacial water pressure, and show how widespread basal motion affects bulk glacier behavior.
Cardiac Fibromas are primary cardiac tumours more common in children than in adults. Surgical intervention is often not required except in the case of limited cardiac output or significant arrhythmia burden. We present a symptomatic 3-month-old infant who had successful surgical intervention for a giant right ventricle fibroma found on prenatal imaging.
To evaluate long-term efficacy of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) by examining response rates from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores. Preliminary results of the responder analysis are reported in this analysis.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, the odds of response to deutetrabenazine treatment were higher than the odds of response to placebo at all response levels, and there were low rates of overall adverse events and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration and a long-term maintenance phase. The cumulative proportion of AIMS responders from baseline was assessed. Response was defined as a percent improvement from baseline for each patient from 10% to 90% in 10% increments. AlMS score was assessed by local site ratings for this analysis.
343 patients enrolled in the extension study (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 patients received deutetrabenazine). At Week 54 (n=145; total daily dose [mean±standard error]: 38.1±0.9mg), 63% of patients receiving deutetrabenazine achieved ≥30% response, 48% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 26% achieved ≥70% response. At Week 80 (n=66; total daily dose: 38.6±1.1mg), 76% of patients achieved ≥30% response, 59% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 36% achieved ≥70% response. Treatment was generally well tolerated.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved response rates higher than those observed in positive short-term studies, indicating clinically meaningful long-term treatment benefit.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.
To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) at 2years.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores compared with placebo, and there were low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safety measures included incidence of AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs; incidence/patient-years) were used to compare AE frequencies for long-term treatment with those for short-term treatment (ARM-TD and AIM-TD). This analysis reports results up to 2 years (Week106).
343 patients were enrolled (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 received deutetrabenazine). There were 331.4 patient-years of exposure in this analysis. Through Week 106, EAIRs of AEs were comparable to or lower than those observed with short-term deutetrabenazine and placebo, including AEs of interest (akathisia/restlessness [long-term EAIR: 0.02; short-term EAIR range: 0–0.25], anxiety [0.09; 0.13–0.21], depression [0.09; 0.04–0.13], diarrhea [0.06; 0.06–0.34], parkinsonism [0.01; 0–0.08], somnolence/sedation [0.09; 0.06–0.81], and suicidality [0.02; 0–0.13]). The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.15) was similar to those observed with short-term placebo (0.33) and deutetrabenazine (range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to withdrawal (0.08), dose reduction (0.17), and dose suspension (0.06) were uncommon.
These results confirm the safety outcomes seen in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD parent studies, demonstrating that deutetrabenazine is well tolerated for long-term use in TD patients.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California,USA
Funding Acknowledgements: Funding: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel
Vegetable and grain amaranths represent a vital source of micronutrients and protein in Asia and Africa. However, various foliar lepidopteran pests and stem-mining weevils hinder amaranth production. Insect-resistant cultivars can enhance the productivity of this crop. Here, we report on the performances of amaranth varieties screened for their resistance to insect pests under the field conditions at The World Vegetable Center stations in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted two preliminary screening trials with a total of 263 entries from around the world in Taiwan and a third preliminary screening trial with 49 African-indigenous entries in Tanzania. Promising entries from these preliminary trials were collectively evaluated in an advanced screening trial in Tanzania, to identify lines resistant to foliar and stem-boring pests in East Africa. Four entries exhibited moderate resistance to foliar pests: TZ51 and TZ53 (Amaranthus cruentus), TZ34 (A. dubius) and TZ39 (Amaranthus sp.). Five entries showed moderate resistance to stem weevils: TZ06 and TZ27 (A. cruentus), TZ52 (A. graecizans), TZ59 (A. palmeri) and TZ07 (Amaranthus sp.). Lepidopteran pests affecting leaves were reared to adulthood and identified as Spoladea recurvalis (Crambidae), Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae) and Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae). Stem weevil larvae were also reared and identified as: Neocleonus sannio Herbst, Gasteroclisus pr. rhomboidalis Boheman, Hypolixus pr. haerens Boheman and Baradine sp. (Curculionidae). These results highlight key amaranth pests in East Africa and identify insect-resistant entries that will be useful in breeding programmes and resistance studies.
Strain rates are fundamental measures of ice flow and are used in a wide variety of glaciological applications including investigations of bed properties, calculations of basal mass balance on ice shelves, and constraints on ice rheological models. However, despite their extensive application, strain rates are calculated using a variety of methods and length scales and the details are often not specified. In this study, we compare the results of nominal and logarithmic strain-rate calculations based on a satellite-derived velocity field of the Antarctic ice sheet generated from Landsat 8 satellite data. Our comparison highlights the differences between the two common approaches in the glaciological literature. We evaluate the errors introduced by each approach and their impacts on the results. We also demonstrate the importance of choosing and specifying a length scale over which strain-rate calculations are made, which can strongly influence other derived quantities such as basal mass balance on ice shelves. Finally, we present strain-rate data products calculated using an approximate viscous length-scale with satellite observations of ice velocity for the Antarctic continent.
We describe a new specimen of the aïstopod Oestocephalus from Five Points, Ohio, which preserves much of the posterior braincase. The specimen, the largest aïstopod skull described, preserves the postorbital region to the occiput. The posterior braincase has coossified the basioccipital, exoccipitals, and opisthotic. The parasphenoid is rostrally restricted, toothless, and highly vaulted along the cultriform process. The lateral walls of the cultriform process are further reinforced by large longitudinally running, ventral flanges from the parietals. Two large endochondral ventral projections from the basioccipital, previously interpreted as basal tuberosities for hypaxial muscle insertion, are here instead interpreted as articulations for the branchial skeleton. This interpretation is further supported by traces of vasculature that is consistent with what is seen in gill-bearing species. A model for the reorganisation of the basicranial region on the transition from hyomandibula to stapes is proposed, which suggests that gills, or gill-support skeletal elements, might be further distributed along the tetrapod stem than previously thought. These data further support the placement of aïstopods in the tetrapod stem group and require a reconsideration of our understanding of early tetrapod evolution.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: More partial nephrectomies are performed every year as a surgical treatment for kidney cancer. However, this procedure remains technically challenging. Surgeons require a substantial number of cases before their performance plateaus. No established practice mode exists; thus, there is a need for training models to simulate real tumor excisions and kidney suturing. In this study, we seek to validate these silicone models using multiple simulations with urologists of different training levels. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We created silicone renal tumor models using 3D printed molds of a patient’s kidney with a mass. Medical students, urology residents, fellows, and attending surgeons are recruited to perform simulated partial nephrectomies on these models. Four trials are performed with a da Vinci surgical robot on 2 different days. We are evaluating surgeon performance and improvement using validated measures as well as operation-specific metrics. Operation-specific metrics include renal artery clamp time and surgical margins. Validated measures of self-assessed operative demand (NASA TLX) and reviewer-assessed surgical performance (GEARS) are also recorded across trials. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The preliminary results of 2 medical students, 10 urology residents, 3 endourology fellows, and 2 attending urologists are reported here. Model face validity was evaluated on a 0–100 sliding scale anchored at unrealistic and realistic. Mean results thus far are 77.7 for overall feel, 82.7 for needle driving, 75.6 for cutting, and 73.2 for visual representation. Between trials 1 and 4 there was a mean reduction of 3.26 minutes in renal artery clamp time, and a 75% reduction in positive margins. There was a reduced incidence of positive surgical margins with advanced training stage. Fellows, residents, and medical students had positive tumor margins in 25%, 50%, and 75% of their trials, respectively. We expect to recruit 15 additional subjects for this study. Upon completion of data acquisition, more robust statistical comparisons and measures will be reported. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Face validity measures indicate the model adequately represents reality. Preliminary data suggest improved surgical performance over the course of the training and better performance in urologists of higher training levels. This model may have potential for broader application and integration into minimally invasive surgery training programs.
To determine whether antimicrobial-impregnated textiles decrease the acquisition of pathogens by healthcare provider (HCP) clothing.
We completed a 3-arm randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of 2 types of antimicrobial-impregnated clothing compared to standard HCP clothing. Cultures were obtained from each nurse participant, the healthcare environment, and patients during each shift. The primary outcome was the change in total contamination on nurse scrubs, measured as the sum of colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Nurses working in medical and surgical ICUs in a 936-bed tertiary-care hospital.
Nurse subjects wore standard cotton-polyester surgical scrubs (control), scrubs that contained a complex element compound with a silver-alloy embedded in its fibers (Scrub 1), or scrubs impregnated with an organosilane-based quaternary ammonium and a hydrophobic fluoroacrylate copolymer emulsion (Scrub 2). Nurse participants were blinded to scrub type and randomly participated in all 3 arms during 3 consecutive 12-hour shifts in the intensive care unit.
In total, 40 nurses were enrolled and completed 3 shifts. Analyses of 2,919 cultures from the environment and 2,185 from HCP clothing showed that scrub type was not associated with a change in HCP clothing contamination (P=.70). Mean difference estimates were 0.118 for the Scrub 1 arm (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.206 to 0.441; P=.48) and 0.009 for the Scrub 2 rm (95% CI, −0.323 to 0.342; P=.96) compared to the control. HCP became newly contaminated with important pathogens during 19 of the 120 shifts (16%).
Antimicrobial-impregnated scrubs were not effective at reducing HCP contamination. However, the environment is an important source of HCP clothing contamination.
Background: The evidence regarding whether co-morbid obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is associated with treatment outcomes in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is mixed, with some research indicating that OCPD is associated with poorer response, and some showing that it is associated with improved response. Aims: We sought to explore the role of OCPD diagnosis and the personality domain of conscientiousness on treatment outcomes for exposure and response prevention for OCD. Method: The impact of co-morbid OCPD and conscientiousness on treatment outcomes was examined in a clinical sample of 46 participants with OCD. Results: OCPD diagnosis and scores on conscientiousness were not associated with poorer post-treatment OCD severity, as indexed by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) scores, although the relative sample size of OCPD was small and thus generalizability is limited. Conclusion: This study found no evidence that OCPD or conscientiousness were associated with treatment outcomes for OCD. Further research with larger clinical samples is required.
Bodily isomerism, also referred to as heterotaxy, involves predominantly the thoracic organs, although other organs are usually abnormally positioned. Previously assessed on the basis of splenic anatomy, it is now understood that isomerism is better segregated on the basis of atrial appendage morphology. This allows for anticipation of associated findings. We aimed to assess the accuracy of segregation based on the morphology of the atrial appendages and other structures more easily identified by echocardiography.
We reviewed postmortem specimens of hearts from the archives at four institutions categorised as obtained from patients with “heterotaxy”. The cardiac structures were analysed using sequential segmental analysis. Non-cardiac structures were also examined if available. Statistical analyses were performed to compare differences in the settings of right as opposed to left isomerism.
Specimens were available from 188 patients. Of these, 57 had left isomerism, and 131 had right isomerism. Atrial appendages were isomeric in all patients. A coronary sinus was found only in left isomerism, whereas a terminal crest, or a Eustachian valve, was found only in right isomerism. Interruption of the inferior caval vein was associated with left isomerism, whereas totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection was associated with right isomerism.
Isomerism is uniformly segregated on the basis of the morphology of the atrial appendages, itself defined by the extent of the pectinate muscles. Other features such as the presence of a coronary sinus and systemic venous return can further help with such segregation of isomerism.
“Heterotaxy syndrome”, best segregated as isomerism, is characterised by laterality defects of the thoraco-abdominal organs, causing functional impairment. In particular, the spleen is frequently affected, increasing susceptibility to bacteraemia. This study explored factors that may increase the risk of bacteraemia in patients with isomerism.
We identified patients with CHD and isomerism. Review of outpatient, inpatient, and surgical records was conducted to collect data and determine trends in the cohort. A Cox regression analysis was conducted to determine factors influencing freedom from bacteraemia (Fig 1).
We identified 83 patients with CHD and isomerism – 17 (20%) who had documented episodes of bacteraemia with a total of 21 episodes. A majority (86%) were nosocomial. The median age at the time of bacteraemia was 4 months. Although splenic anatomy did appear to influence the risk of bacteraemia in univariate analysis, this significance was lost with multivariate analysis. None of the other factors was significantly associated in either univariate or multivariate analysis.
Specific factors such as splenic anatomy, atrial appendage isomerism, and antibiotic prophylaxis status are not significantly associated with the risk of bacteraemia in patients with CHD and isomerism. Nosocomial infections represent a majority of bacteraemia in these patients.
A case of an asymptomatic child presenting with persistent systolic ejection click and found to have an unusual left ventricular false tendon attached to aortic valve that has not been described previously and may be responsible for the click.
It is still thought by some that a common wall is to be found in the normal heart between the attachments of the caval and pulmonary veins, with absence of this wall underscoring the presence of sinus venosus defects. Recent findings using episcopic microscopy in developing mice have shown the deficiencies of this notion. Understanding that the superior rim of the oval fossa is a fold, rather than a true septum, which can be distorted in the presence of partially anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, has provided an alternative explanation for the morphogenesis of sinus venosus defects.
We reviewed our experience with patients suspected of having a sinus venosus defect from August, 2011, through October, 2015, analysing the findings in light of the current hypotheses used to explain the development of the defects, along with correlations made by inspection of autopsy specimens.
We evaluated findings from 16 patients, with a mean age of 7.7 years, ranging from 2.7 to 15 years. Of the group, 13 were ultimately diagnosed with a superior sinus venosus defect, two with an inferior defect, and one with isolated anomalous pulmonary venous connection in the absence of an interatrial communication. Initially, two patients were thought to have oval fossa defects, one from each subtype, but were correctly diagnosed following cardiac magnetic resonance interrogation. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections were present in all cases.
Appreciation of the changes occurring during normal cardiac development helps in understanding the anatomical substrate underscoring the spectrum of sinus venosus defects. The lesions are veno-venous connections due to partially anomalous pulmonary venous connections, producing interatrial communications outside the confines of the interatrial septum.
Hearts in which the arterial trunks arise from the morphologically appropriate ventricles, but in a parallel manner, rather than the usual spiralling arrangement, have long fascinated anatomists. These rare entities, for quite some time, were considered embryological impossibilities, but ongoing experience has shown that they can be found in various segmental combinations. Problems still exist about how best to describe them, as the different variants are often described with esoteric terms, such as anatomically corrected malposition or isolated ventricular inversion. In this review, based on our combined clinical and morphological experience, we demonstrate that the essential feature of all hearts described in this manner is a parallel arrangement of the arterial trunks as they exit from the ventricular mass. We show that the relationship of the arterial roots needs to be described in terms of the underlying ventricular topology, rather than according to the arrangement of the atrial chambers. We then discuss the importance of determining atrial arrangement on the basis of the morphology of the appendages, following the precepts as set out in the so-called “morphological method” and distinguished according to the extent of the pectinate muscles relative to the atrioventricular junctions as opposed to basing diagnosis on the venoatrial connections. We show that, when approached in this manner, the various combinations can be readily diagnosed in the clinical setting and described in straightforward way.
Heterotaxy is a unique clinical entity in which lateralisation of the thoraco-abdominal organs is abnormal, typically with isomerism of the bronchial tree and atrial appendages. This study was carried out to determine whether routine clinical imaging such as chest radiographs, angiographic images, and CT/MRI can determine bronchial isomerism, and how sidedness of bronchial isomerism correlates with overall features anticipated in hearts with isomeric atrial appendages.
Methods and results
We identified 73 patients with heterotaxy, in whom imaging clearly demonstrated the bronchial tree, seen at our institution since 1998. We calculated bronchial angles and lengths using all the available imaging modalities to determine the presence and sidedness of bronchial isomerism. This was then compared with the anticipated presence of isomeric atrial appendages based on the overall clinical findings, as the appendages themselves had not specifically been imaged.
The ratio of bronchial lengths revealed bronchial isomerism in all patients, with bronchial angles permitting distinction of right as opposed to left isomerism. We noted discordances between the identified bronchial isomerism and the presumed arrangement of the atrial appendages in nearly 20% of the patients in our cohort.
Routine clinical imaging with chest radiographs, angiographic imaging, and CT/MRI can determine the presence of bronchial isomerism in patients with so-called heterotaxy. Right as opposed to left isomerism can be distinguished based on bronchial angles. The finding of bronchial isomerism correlates well, but not totally, with the presumed isomerism of the atrial appendages as predicted from the identified intra-cardiac morphology.
Use of correct nomenclature is important in all aspects of medicine. Many of the controversies that have bedeviled paediatric cardiology have devolved from the inappropriate use of words to describe the lesions to be found when the heart is congenitally abnormal. A continuing area of disagreement is the situation currently described by many as representing “heterotaxy”. When used literally, this word means any departure from the normal. Thus, all congenitally malformed hearts represent examples of heterotaxy. By convention, nonetheless, the term is used to describe the arrangement in which the bodily organs, including parts of the heart, are not in their usual or in their mirror-imaged patterns. The arrangements, therefore, represent the presence of the organs on the right and left sides of the body being mirror imaged, in other words isomeric; however, not all the organs are uniformly isomeric. In this review, we show that, when assessed on the basis of the morphology of the atrial appendages, specifically the extent of the pectinate muscles relative to the atrioventricular junctions, isomerism is an unequivocal finding within the heart. Only the atrial appendages, however, are truly isomeric. The potential problem of disharmony between the various systems of organs is resolved simply by accounting specifically for each of the systems. On these bases, we suggest that the isomeric arrangements can now readily be diagnosed in the clinical setting, and differentiated into their right and left isomeric variants. We propose that such distinctions will provide the key for establishing the genetic cues responsible for the formation of the isomeric as opposed to the lateralised arrangements.