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This is a comprehensive review of the psychological literature on wisdom by leading experts in the field. It covers the philosophical and sociocultural foundations of wisdom, and showcases the measurement and teaching of wisdom. The connection of wisdom to intelligence and personality is explained alongside its relationship with morality and ethics. It also explores the neurobiology of wisdom, its significance in medical decision-making, and wise leadership. How to develop wisdom is discussed and practical information is given about how to instil it in others. The book is accessible to a wide readership and includes virtually all of the major theories of wisdom, as well as the full range of research on wisdom as it is understood today. It takes both a basic-science and applied focus, making it useful to those seeking to understand wisdom scientifically, and to those who wish to apply their understanding of wisdom to their own work.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: We previously demonstrated that products released by cultured B cells from patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are cytotoxic to neurons and oligodendrocytes, while minimal toxicity was observed in response to B cell secretory products from age- and sex-matched normal controls. The goal of this proposal is to identify the range of brain cells susceptible to MS B cell-mediated cytotoxicity, to define the cytotoxic factor(s) released by MS B cells, and to determine whether particular subset(s) of MS B cells harbor the greatest pathogenic potential. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The toxicity of B cell products will be demonstrated by incubating primary rat cultures of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) with B cell supernatants. B cells will be isolated from the peripheral circulation of untreated relapse-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and age- and sex-matched normal controls. The identification of specific toxic factor(s) in MS B cell supernatants will be achieved through a combination of exosome-depletion/enrichment of conditioned media, proteomics, next generation sequencing, and lipidomics. Determining pathogenic B cell subsets will be achieved by cell sorting into memory and naïve B cell subsets prior to collection of supernatants. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that the toxicity of MS B cell products is mediated, at least in part, by extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes. We expect depletion of these exosomes from the B cell conditioned media or inhibition of their biogenesis will mitigate the observed toxicity. Furthermore, differences in B cell-derived exosomal content, such as proteins, (mi)RNAs, or lipids, likely explain the differences in observed toxicity. Lastly, we hypothesize that memory B cells, which are enriched in the CNS of MS patients and demonstrate a more pro-inflammatory profile than naïve B cells, are responsible for the toxicity observed in supernatants of total B cells. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: MS is the most prevalent chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS, affecting more than 2 million people worldwide. Although over a dozen disease-modifying therapies are approved for the treatment of RRMS, none are meaningfully effective at limiting disease progression. This proposal will provide new insight into immune-CNS interactions in progressive MS and provide much-needed novel targets for therapeutic intervention, either via blocking identified toxic molecule(s) or by selectively depleting pathogenic B cell subsets.