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Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive pest of many small and soft fruits. We present the first results concerning its oviposition in the canopy of a sweet cherry (Prunus avium Linnaeus; Rosaceae) orchard. We examined the distribution of arthropods emerging from fruits of five cultivars ripening successively over seven weeks, in interior and border rows, within four regions of the tree canopy (top/bottom height × north/south aspect), and measured the associated fruit ripeness (ºBrix). Single fruits were reared for more than two weeks: 1328 arthropods emerged from 887 cherries in June, and 10 426 emerged from 1071 cherries in July. When populations were low, significantly more D. suzukii were present in the northernmost row and northern canopy aspect. Later, its distribution with respect to cherry row, height, and aspect was homogenous. Drosophila suzukii density per sweet cherry was highest in the latest ripening cultivar, when its distribution was not homogeneous; significantly more D. suzukii were in the centre than the southernmost row, in the lower canopy, and the southern aspect, than elsewhere. In the early season, single egg clutches were found without aggregation. As population density increased, so did intraspecific aggregation, but D. suzukii did not co-exist with other Drosophila Fallén species, nor with Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) when present.
Personality disorder is likely to be common in late life, but our ignorance is such that, at present, we can only speculate about its frequency and importance. The only firm evidence we have is that antisocial personality features tend to be attenuated in older age and obsessional and detached features accentuated. Differentiating personality change following organic disease from personality disorder requires more attention as it is important for good clinical management.
La situation de la Guyane-Française, département français d’Amérique, est un exemple fort de l’exigence de prendre en compte les paramètres transculturels pour comprendre et agir sur la prévention du suicide. On distingue, dans cette région, la population vivant sur le littoral ayant accès aux principales ressources et la population vivant dans les communes de l’intérieur. En effet, les peuples de la Guyane sont irrégulièrement répartis sur 84 000 km2. Certains villages sont éloignés des structures de soins et de santé parfois de plusieurs jours de pirogues. Les dernières études de l’OMS démontrent que les risques du suicide croissent avec l’éloignement des centres urbanisés. La population résidant sur les deux fleuves de la Guyane et à l’Intérieur (espace forestier amazonien) présente une vulnérabilité au suicide supérieure à tous les autres segments de la société guyanaise et française. Ces suicides sont essentiellement le fait de jeunes. La question du suicide chez les populations autochtones de la Guyane révèle un mal être profond qui dépasse la simple conception médicopsychologique du risque de passage à l’acte. Les causes de ce phénomène sont pluridimensionnelles et regroupent entre autres des facteurs psychologiques, sociaux, anthropologiques, écologiques et politiques. Si les passages à l’acte sont dans la majorité des cas liés à une consommation excessive d’alcool et déclenchés par des motifs au premier abord anodins (différends familiaux, obstacle à l’achat de produits de consommation), ils résultent plutôt de la manifestation extrême d’un mal-être bien plus profond. Pertes de repères liés à la modification brutale des modes de vie, déstructuration de la cellule familiale, inactivité en particulier chez les jeunes, échecs scolaires, absence de perspectives d’avenir et isolement sont des motifs qui peuvent expliquer le comportement suicidaire. Un partenaire majeur dans cette réflexion est le CCPAB (Conseil consultatif des populations amérindiennes et Bushininge de Guyane), instance auprès de la future collectivité unique, siégeant à la Préfecture, spécifique aux DOM, qui fait du suicide des autochtones un axe prioritaire de lutte. C’est une démarche intégrative de ces dimensions pour une évaluation globale avec des outils spécifiques que nous construisons au sein de l’équipe Inserm (Ipsom) à laquelle est adossée la CeRMEPI (cellule régionale pour le mieux être des populations de l’intérieur) créée par le préfet. Cette prise en charge holistique permettra d’aider le travail plus spécifiquement médical de prévention et de soins qui est actuellement effectué par les services de psychiatrie de Guyane grâce aux équipes mobiles et à la CUMP (cellule d’urgence médicopsychologique).
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants including genetics, environmental data and imaging. An online mental health questionnaire was designed for UK Biobank participants to expand its potential.
Describe the development, implementation and results of this questionnaire.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting a patient group. Operational criteria were agreed for defining likely disorder and risk states, including lifetime depression, mania/hypomania, generalised anxiety disorder, unusual experiences and self-harm, and current post-traumatic stress and hazardous/harmful alcohol use.
A total of 157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Participants were aged 45–82 (53% were ≥65 years) and 57% women. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status. Lifetime depression was a common finding, with 24% (37 434) of participants meeting criteria and current hazardous/harmful alcohol use criteria were met by 21% (32 602), whereas other criteria were met by less than 8% of the participants. There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with a high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The UK Biobank questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed because of selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
The main thesis of this article is that Kant’s concept of law is a non-positivistic one, notwithstanding the fact that his legal philosophy includes very strong positivistic elements. My argument takes as its point of departure the distinction of three elements, around which the debate between positivism and non-positivism turns: first, authoritative issuance, second, social efficacy, and, third, moral correctness. All positivistic theories are confined to the first two elements. As soon as a necessary connection between these first two elements and the third element, moral correctness, is established, the picture changes fundamentally. Positivism becomes non-positivism. There exist two kinds of connections between law and morality: classifying and qualifying connections. This distinction stems from different sorts of effects that moral defects give rise to. A classifying connection leads to the loss of legal validity, whereas a qualifying connection leads only to legal defectiveness. In Kant’s theory of law both connections are found. The qualifying connection is conspicuous throughout Kant’s theory of law, whereas the classifying connection, by contrast, is rare and well hidden. This will suffice to consider Kant as a representative of inclusive non-positivism.
Self-reported activity restriction is an established correlate of depression in dementia caregivers (dCGs). It is plausible that the daily distribution of objectively measured activity is also altered in dCGs with depression symptoms; if so, such activity characteristics could provide a passively measurable marker of depression or specific times to target preventive interventions. We therefore investigated how levels of activity throughout the day differed in dCGs with and without depression symptoms, then tested whether any such differences predicted changes in symptoms 6 months later.
Design, setting, participants, and measurements:
We examined 56 dCGs (mean age = 71, standard deviation (SD) = 6.7; 68% female) and used clustering to identify subgroups which had distinct depression symptom levels, leveraging baseline Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale–Revised Edition and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) measures, as well as a PHQ-9 score from 6 months later. Using wrist activity (mean recording length = 12.9 days, minimum = 6 days), we calculated average hourly activity levels and then assessed when activity levels relate to depression symptoms and changes in symptoms 6 months later.
Clustering identified subgroups characterized by: (1) no/minimal symptoms (36%) and (2) depression symptoms (64%). After multiple comparison correction, the group of dCGs with depression symptoms was less active from 8 to 10 AM (Cohen’s d ≤ −0.9). These morning activity levels predicted the degree of symptom change on the PHQ-9 6 months later (per SD unit β = −0.8, 95% confidence interval: −1.6, −0.1, p = 0.03) independent of self-reported activity restriction and other key factors.
These novel findings suggest that morning activity may protect dCGs from depression symptoms. Future studies should test whether helping dCGs get active in the morning influences the other features of depression in this population (i.e. insomnia, intrusive thoughts, and perceived activity restriction).
Maternal mental health during pregnancy and postpartum predicts later emotional and behavioural problems in children. Even though most perinatal mental health problems begin before pregnancy, the consequences of preconception maternal mental health for children's early emotional development have not been prospectively studied.
We used data from two prospective Australian intergenerational cohorts, with 756 women assessed repeatedly for mental health problems before pregnancy between age 13 and 29 years, and during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum for 1231 subsequent pregnancies. Offspring infant emotional reactivity, an early indicator of differential sensitivity denoting increased risk of emotional problems under adversity, was assessed at 1 year postpartum.
Thirty-seven percent of infants born to mothers with persistent preconception mental health problems were categorised as high in emotional reactivity, compared to 23% born to mothers without preconception history (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.1). Ante- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were similarly associated with infant emotional reactivity, but these perinatal associations reduced somewhat after adjustment for prior exposure. Causal mediation analysis further showed that 88% of the preconception risk was a direct effect, not mediated by perinatal exposure.
Maternal preconception mental health problems predict infant emotional reactivity, independently of maternal perinatal mental health; while associations between perinatal depressive symptoms and infant reactivity are partially explained by prior exposure. Findings suggest that processes shaping early vulnerability for later mental disorders arise well before conception. There is an emerging case for expanding developmental theories and trialling preventive interventions in the years before pregnancy.
The development of unmanned systems (UMS) for naval combat poses a profound challenge to existing conventions regarding the treatment of the shipwrecked and wounded in war at sea. Article 18 of the 1949 Geneva Convention II states that warring parties are required to take “all possible measures” to search for and collect seamen left in the water after each engagement. The authors of the present paper analyze the ethical basis of this convention and argue that the international community should demand that UMS intended for roles in war at sea be provided with the capacity to make some contribution to search and rescue operations.
Potentially modifiable risk factors for developing dementia have been identified. However, risk factors for increased mortality in patients with diagnosed dementia are not well understood. Identifying factors that influence prognosis would help clinicians plan care and address unmet needs.
To investigate diagnosed depression and sociodemographic factors as predictors of mortality in patients with dementia in UK secondary clinical care services.
We conducted a cohort study of patients with a dementia diagnosis in an electronic health records database in a UK National Health Service mental health trust.
In 3374 patients with 10 856 person-years of follow-up, comorbid depression was not associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 0.94; 95% CI 0.71–1.24). Single patients had higher mortality than those who were married (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25; 95% CI 1.03–1.50). Patients of Asian ethnicity had lower mortality rates than White British patients (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50; 95% CI 0.34–0.73).
Clinically diagnosed depression does not increase mortality in patients with dementia. Patients who are single are a potential high-mortality risk group. Lower mortality rates in Asian patients with dementia that have been reported in the USA also apply in the UK.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
Hippocampal neurogenesis continues throughout adult life and potentially plays a crucial role in mood and cognitive disorders. We summarise the preclinical insights and potential translational steps that could be taken to investigate the role and importance of this phenomenon in disease and health in humans.
Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs).
To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither.
Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis.
In the 9 months after Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, MMSE scores significantly increased by 0.72 and 0.19 points per year in patients on C-ACEIs and neither respectively, but deteriorated by 0.61 points per year in those on NC-ACEIs. There were no significant group differences in score trajectories from 9 to 36 months and no differences in survival.
In people with Alzheimer's disease receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, those also taking C-ACEIs had stronger initial improvement in cognitive function, but there was no evidence of longer-lasting influence on dementia progression.
A substantial subset of people with psychotic disorders are first diagnosed in old age, yet little is known about the epidemiology of very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis. We investigated the incidence of affective and non-affective psychotic disorders in those aged 65 and above, and examined variation related to potential risk factors via systematic literature review. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Science and bibliographies and directly contacted authors to obtain citations published between 1960 and 2016 containing (derivable) incidence data. Cases were those diagnosed with non-organic psychotic disorders after age 65. Findings were presented narratively, and random-effects meta-analyses were used to obtain pooled incidence rates. From 5687 citations, 41 met inclusion criteria. The pooled incidence of: affective psychoses was 30.9 per 100 000 person-years at risk (100 kpy) [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.5–83.4; I2 = 0.99], and schizophrenia was 7.5 per 100 kpy (95% CI 6.2–9.1; I2 = 0.99), with some evidence of higher schizophrenia rates in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6; 95% CI 1.0–2.5, p = 0.05]. We found narrative evidence of increasing incidence rates of non-affective psychoses with age, and higher rates amongst migrants than baseline populations, but no evidence that incidence varied by study quality or case ascertainment period (quality OR = 1.04; 95% CI 0.74–1.48; time period OR = 1.00; 95% CI 0.95–1.05). Substantial heterogeneity in the incidence of very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychoses was observed. No identified studies examined possible risk factors which may account for such variation, including socio-economic status, sensory impairment, traumatic life events, or social isolation.
A psychiatrist who cannot show that he or she has been involved in audit is going to be in difficulties. Short-listing panels for the appointment of trainees at CT1 or ST4 as well as those for the appointment of consultants already look for evidence of involvement in audit before ticking important boxes and the emerging criteria for revalidation of all doctors include completion of a number of audits during each 5-year revalidation cycle. We cannot avoid audit. Yet one of the biggest current contributors to wasted trainee and consultant time in psychiatry that I can think of is the conduct of audit projects that have been poorly thought through. These often mercifully stall. But even if they stutter on, those involved suffer frustration and pain before they are able only to deliver a product that nobody really wants to hear about. Conduct of a successful and satisfying audit requires expertise – in terms of both knowledge and experience – as well as energy. Expertise in the planning and conduct of audits may be hard to access in many of the settings within which we work. In such circumstances, how useful it would be to have access to a series of recipes for audit projects that have been successfully completed by experts and whose results have been useful and interesting. This is the exact purpose of the book you are now reading. The expertise and experiences of our colleagues in all branches of psychiatry who have carried out audit projects that have worked and usefully informed practice and service design are encapsulated in a comprehensive range of easy-to- follow recipes suitable for all, from the absolute beginner to the cordon bleu auditiste. I congratulate the editors for their vision and energy in putting this book together and thank all the contributors who supplied them with their audits. Psychiatrists will be happy and grateful to have this book to help them through the requirements of appointment panels and revalidation. But maybe, also, once helped to identify interesting and deliverable projects, psychiatrists will no longer feel they are wasting time on audit and will get some value and satisfaction out of the process.
Use of antipsychotics to treat behavioural symptoms of dementia has been associated with increased risks of mortality and stroke. Little is known about individual patient characteristics that might be associated with bad or good outcomes.
We examined the risperidone clinical trial data to look for individual patient characteristics associated with these adverse outcomes.
Data from all double-blind randomised controlled trials of risperidone in dementia patients (risperidone n = 1009, placebo n = 712) were included. Associations between characteristics and outcome were analysed based on crude incidences and exposure-adjusted incidence rates, and by time-to-event analyses using Cox proportional hazards regression. Interactions between treatment (risperidone or placebo) and characteristic were analysed with a Cox proportional hazards regression model with main effects for treatment and characteristic in addition to the interaction term.
Baseline complications of depression (treatment by risk factor interaction on cerebrovascular adverse event (CVAE) hazard ratio (HR): P = 0.025) and delusions (P = 0.043) were associated with a lower relative risk of CVAE in risperidone-treated patients (HR = 1.47 and 0.54, respectively) compared to not having the complication (HR = 5.88 and 4.16). For mortality, the only significant baseline predictor in patients treated with risperidone was depression, which was associated with a lower relative risk (P<0.001). The relative risk of mortality was increased in risperidone patients treated with anti-inflammatory medications (P = 0.021).
Only anti-inflammatory medications increased mortality risk with risperidone. The reduced risks of CVAE in patients with comorbid depression and delusions, and of mortality with depression, may have clinical implications when weighing the benefits and risks of treatment with risperidone in patients with dementia.