The local Brazilian breed of cattle known as Curraleiro is at risk of extinction. As a result a group of researchers have taken action to conserve and utilize these animals. The Curraleiro breed is descended from cattle brought to Brazil by Iberian colonizers. These animals have adapted to pasture of low quality, very low humidity conditions, heat and other adverse factors characteristic of the Brazilian savannah. A population census was conducted and, in order to identify the characteristics of Curraleiro breeders, 28 farmers in the states of Goiás and Tocantins were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, eliciting information about them, their farms and their animals. The type of production system and the level of technology applied in the farms were determined in each case. Forty-nine herds, with a a total of 3,692 animals, were located in the states of Goiás, Tocantins, Bahia, Pará and Piaui. The production system applied to Curraleiro livestock herds is extensive, with a medium level of technology, low production costs and low economic returns. The risk of inbreeding is evident and there is great concern and interest on the part of producers in conserving this breed. Because the national census of these cattle is low, this breed can be considered vulnerable and at risk of extinction.