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Cotton growers commonly use glufosinate-based programs to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Palmer amaranth must be small (≤7.5 cm) for consistent control by glufosinate, and growers often miss the optimum application timing. XtendFlex™ cotton may provide growers a tool to control larger Palmer amaranth. Glufosinate, dicamba, and glufosinate plus dicamba were compared for Palmer amaranth control in a rescue situation. Herbicides were applied to 16- to 23-cm weeds (POST-1) followed by a second application (POST-2) 12 d later. Glufosinate-ammonium at 590 g ai ha−1 plus dicamba diglycolamine salt at 560 g ae ha−1 POST-1 followed by glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2 was more effective than glufosinate at 880 g ha−1 POST-1 followed by glufosinate at 590 g ha−1 POST-2 or dicamba alone applied twice. Following a directed layby application of glyphosate, diuron, and S-metolachlor 14 d after POST-2, Palmer amaranth was controlled 99% by any system containing dicamba or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-1 followed by dicamba, glufosinate, or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2 compared with 87% to 91% control by glufosinate alone applied twice. Cotton height and number of main stem nodes at layby were reduced in systems with dicamba only POST-1 followed by dicamba or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2, presumably due to competition from the slowly dying Palmer amaranth with dicamba only POST-1. These treatments also delayed cotton maturity and reduced lint yield compared with systems containing glufosinate plus dicamba at POST-1.
Glufosinate controls glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, but growers struggle to make timely applications. XtendFlexTM cotton, resistant to dicamba, glufosinate, and glyphosate, may provide growers an option to control larger weeds. Palmer amaranth control and cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality were evaluated in a rescue situation created by delaying the first POST herbicide application. Treatments consisted of two POST applications of dicamba plus glufosinate, separated by 14 d, with the first application timely (0-d delay) or delayed 7, 14, 21, or 28 d. All treatments included a layby application of diuron plus MSMA. Palmer amaranth, 14 d after first POST, was controlled 99, 96, 89, 75, and 73% with 0-, 7-, 14-, 21-, or 28-d delays, respectively. Control increased following the second application, and the weed was controlled at least 94% following layby. Cotton yield decreased linearly as first POST application was delayed, with yield reductions ranging from 8 to 42% with 7- to 28-d delays. Delays in first POST application delayed cotton maturity but did not affect fiber quality.
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