To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been classified as one of the most attractive nanotechnologies, thanks to their potential or already implemented applications; therefore, biological methods for their synthesis have been widely investigated. This study explores the synthesis of AuNPs using the extract of Anemopsis californica, and determinates the effect of the solvent used (water, methanol, and isopropanol) to obtain the AuNPs. Biogenic nanoparticles were analysed through UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM, and SAED). Significant differences in polydispersity and morphology of AuNPs among the different methods used were found; the aqueous extract and the extract based on methanol formed nanotriangles and polyhedral nanoparticles; the shape of the nanoparticles is predominantly polyhedral when isopropanol is used as the solvent. The as obtained nanoparticles were placed on glass slides to perform Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) experiments, an amplification of the methylene blue Raman signal was observed when triangular nanoparticles cover the biogenic SERS substrate.
We report the bivariate
-stellar mass distributions of local galaxies in addition of an inventory of galaxy mass functions, MFs, for
, cold gas, and baryonic mass, separately into early- and late-type galaxies. The MFs are determined using the
conditional distributions and the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). For the conditional distributions we use the results from the compilation presented in Calette et al. [(2018) RMxAA, 54, 443.]. For determining the GSMF from
, we combine two spectroscopic samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at the redshift range
. We find that the low-mass end slope of the GSMF, after correcting from surface brightness incompleteness, is
, consistent with previous determinations. The obtained
MFs agree with radio blind surveys. Similarly, the
MFs are consistent with CO follow-up optically-selected samples. We estimate the impact of systematics due to mass-to-light ratios and find that our MFs are robust against systematic errors. We deconvolve our MFs from random errors to obtain the intrinsic MFs. Using the MFs, we calculate cosmic density parameters of all the baryonic components. Baryons locked inside galaxies represent 5.4% of the universal baryon content, while
mass inside galaxies reside in late-type morphologies. Our results imply cosmic depletion times of
and total neutral H in late-type galaxies of
and 7.2 Gyr, respectively, which shows that late type galaxies are on average inefficient in converting
into stars and in transforming
. Our results provide a fully self-consistent empirical description of galaxy demographics in terms of the bivariate gas–stellar mass distribution and their projections, the MFs. This description is ideal to compare and/or to constrain galaxy formation models.
The TaqIA polymorphism linked to the DRD2 gene has been associated with alcoholism. The aim of this work is to study attention and inhibitory control as per the continuous performance test and the stop task in a sample of 50 Spanish male alcoholic patients split into two groups according to the presence of the TaqIA1 allele in their genotype. Our results show that alcoholics carrying the TaqIA1 allele present lower sustained attention and less inhibitory control than those patients without such allele.
Different types of behavioural impulsivity have been associated with the development of substance use disorders but little is know about what type of impulsivity is provoked by the effect of chronic use of substances.
Determine what type of behavioural impulsivity was associated with the use of alcohol and cocaine.
Design and measurements:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify changes on behavioural impulsivity. Non-dependent heavy drinkers (N=471) were recruited from primary care centres. The following assessments were used at baseline and at the end of the 4-year follow-up period: The continuous performance test (CPT) and stop-signal task (SST) assessed behavioural inhibition. Differential reinforcement for low-rate responding (DRLR) was used to evaluate the delay discounting dimension. Diagnoses were rendered using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV.
Amounts on alcohol and cocaine consumption during follow-up correlated positively with changes on all impulsivity measures. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cocaine used was associated specifically with poor performance on CPT and SST and amount of alcohol used during follow-up was related to changes on DRLR.
Substances provoke different pattern of behavioural impulsivity: chronic cocaine use provokes changes mainly on behavioural inhibition dimension and alcohol use induces changes on delay discounting paradigm.
The link between impulsivity and alcohol use disorders has been established in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, but little is know about the role of behavioural impulsivity in the development of substance use disorders.
Determine the role of behavioural measures of impulsivity in the development of alcohol use disorders.
Design and measurements:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with alcohol dependence. Non-dependent heavy drinkers (N=471) and healthy controls (N=149) were recruited from primary care centres. They were assessed at the end of the 4-year follow-up period. Diagnoses were rendered using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV. The continuous performance test (CPT) and stop-signal task (SST) assessed behavioural inhibition. Differential reinforcement for low-rate responding (DRLR) was used to evaluate the delay discounting dimension.
HD participants have significant impairments on all laboratory measures of impulsivity. In the logistic regression model, impairment on DRLR (delay discounting dimension) was the only measure that classified accurately HD. Baseline behavioural measures of impulsivity correlated positively with amount of alcohol consumption during the follow-up period. Logistic regression analysis indicated that performance on inhibitory control (SST) (behavioural inhibition dimension) was a significant predictor (odds=1.52[1.08-2.31]) for developing alcohol dependence.
Our data support the link between behavioural measures of impulsivity and alcohol use disorders. Delay discounting dimension may be a risk factor for begin alcohol use heavily and behavioural inhibition impairment is more involved in the development of dependence.
Suicide is a serious public health problem. In 2005, 793 people were hospitalized in Madrid due to suicide attempt. However, most of the attempts do not require hospitalization and patients are discharged after the intervention in the emergency units. With the aim to implement local policies to prevent suicide, it is important to know the whole spectrum of suicide attempts that contact emergency units in Madrid.
To explore the incidence of suicide attempts assisted in the public health system in Madrid and to analyze their characteristics and the response of the health system.
Clinical reports of all patients attempting suicide were analyzed during 4 months in 4 general public hospitals (covering 44.7% of the whole population) in the Community of Madrid.
1009 suicide attempts committed by 921 people (66.2% women) were collected, with an incidence of 34.3 people per 100.000 in 4 months. 57 people (6.2%) committed more than one attempt (range 2 to 10, mean=2.5 ± 1.3). After the emergency intervention 71.9% of the patients were discharged, 25.3% hospitalized, 2.6% fled, and 0.2% died. Regarding suicidal ideation, 7.5% presented very high levels during evaluation, while 13.1% had high levels, 20.3% moderate and 47.3% had no suicidal ideation.
Compared with other European countries, our findings show moderate incidence of suicide attempts, most of which were mild, treated in the emergency units and derived to outpatient psychiatric follow-up. These results suggest places to develop and implement prevention measures.
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the general population in Portugal is estimated to be 30%. It is already known that many patients who present a psychiatric disorder do not seek a medical doctor, in part because they do not recognise their illness but also because of stigma associated to these disorders. Mental health promotion programs for schools are believed to help overcome these difficulties.
To analyse the knowledge on mental health issues and psychiatric disorders of Portuguese school students from the 7th to the 12th grade, and to assess their contact and interactions with patients who have a psychiatric disorder.
Five students from each class at Pedro Alexandrino high school were selected and they were asked to answer to a questionnaire. Data collected from the questionnaires was then statistically analysed.
The sample collected for this study included a total of 145 students, 60% male and 40% female, with a mean age of 15years-old. Global knowledge about mental health and psychiatric disorders among students was poor and it was primarily acquired through the media. A comparatively high percentage of students in our sample (46%) knew at least one patient with a psychiatric disorder, and in most cases those patients were from their family group or circle of friends.
Education on mental health and psychiatric disorders should be implemented at schools and within the context of health education, in order to promote mental health and also to help reduce stigma usually associated to psychiatric disorders.
Potentially inappropriate prescribing, is highly prevalent among older patients hospitalized with major psychiatric illness. Inappropriate use of psychotropic medications in elderly patients has become a focus of concern.
To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing including potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescription omissions (PPOs), according to STOPP-START, Beers and PRISCUS criteria applied by CheckTheMeds®.
To identify potentially IP, PPo and the prevalence of contraindications, interactions and precautions in older patients hospitalized with major psychiatric illness.
Retrospective cross-sectional study with patients over 65 discharged from the Psychiatric acute unit of the university hospital of La Princesa (Madrid) between January 2013 and October 2015 was conducted. The CheckTheMeds® program was used to identify IP.
A total of 104 elders–74 females and 30 males–were included, with a mean age of 76 years (range: 65–91). An average of 5.73 (range: 1–16) was prescribed drugs at discharge. The Ip results STOPP 81.73% (n = 85), START 43.26% (n = 45), Beers 94.23% (n = 98) y PRISCUS 40.38% (n = 42). Contraindications were described in the 21.15% of the patients, precautions in 83.65% and interactions in 83.65%. Psychotropic drugs were the most often inappropriate prescribed medicaments.
Prescribing omissions are twice as prevalent as IP in the elderly. Currently, inappropriate prescription of psychotropic agents is very common for the elderly. Application of such screening tools to prescribing decisions may reduce unnecessary medication, related adverse events, healthcare utilization and cost and nonpharmacological interventions, should be thoroughly explored.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This paper describes initial experimental results from an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation-pulsed atom probe microscope. Femtosecond-pulsed coherent EUV radiation of 29.6 nm wavelength (41.85 eV photon energy), obtained through high harmonic generation in an Ar-filled hollow capillary waveguide, successfully triggered controlled field ion emission from the apex of amorphous SiO2 specimens. The calculated composition is stoichiometric within the error of the measurement and effectively invariant of the specimen base temperature in the range of 25 K to 150 K. Photon energies available in the EUV band are significantly higher than those currently used in the state-of-the-art near-ultraviolet laser-pulsed atom probe, which enables the possibility of additional ionization and desorption pathways. Pulsed coherent EUV light is a new and potential alternative to near-ultraviolet radiation for atom probe tomography.
Helminthological studies may contribute with valuable information on host biology and conservation. Herein, we provide new data on helminths infecting the lizard Norops fuscoauratus, testing one of the factors considered most important in parasitic ecology: host size. We analysed 25 specimens of N. fuscoauratus from three highland marshes in the Brazilian semi-arid. Eight taxa of helminths belonging to Nematoda, Trematoda and Acanthocephala were found. Physaloptera sp. showed the higher prevalence (40%), with a mean intensity of infection of 3.3 ± 1.46 (1–16) and mean abundance 1.32 ± 0.65 (0–16). Norops fuscoauratus represents four new host records for the helminths Cyrtosomum sp., Pharyngodon travassosi, Strongyloides sp. and Centrorhynchus sp. There is no relationship of host body size (P = 0.79) and mass (P = 0.50) with parasite richness. In addition, the present study contributes to the knowledge of the parasitic fauna of N. fuscoauratus and the Neotropical region.
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
Pulsed coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is a potential alternative to pulsed near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelengths for atom probe tomography. EUV radiation has the benefit of high absorption within the first few nm of the sample surface for elements across the entire periodic table. In addition, EUV radiation may also offer athermal field ion emission pathways through direct photoionization or core-hole Auger decay processes, which are not possible with the (much lower) photon energies used in conventional NUV laser-pulsed atom probe. We report preliminary results from what we believe to be the world’s first EUV radiation-pulsed atom probe microscope. The instrument consists of a femtosecond-pulsed, coherent EUV radiation source interfaced to a local electrode atom probe tomograph by means of a vacuum manifold beamline. EUV photon-assisted field ion emission (of substrate atoms) has been demonstrated on various insulating, semiconducting, and metallic specimens. Select examples are shown.
Deflection missions to near-Earth asteroids will encounter non-negligible uncertainties in the physical and orbital parameters of the target object. In order to reliably assess future impact threat mitigation operations such uncertainties have to be quantified and incorporated into the mission design. The implementation of deflection demonstration missions offers the great opportunity to test our current understanding of deflection relevant uncertainties and their consequences, e.g., regarding kinetic impacts on asteroid surfaces. In this contribution, we discuss the role of uncertainties in the NEOTωIST asteroid deflection demonstration concept, a low-cost kinetic impactor design elaborated in the framework of the NEOShield project. The aim of NEOTωIST is to change the spin state of a known and well characterized near-Earth object, in this case the asteroid (25143) Itokawa. Fast events such as the production of the impact crater and ejecta are studied via cube-sat chasers and a flyby vehicle. Long term changes, for instance, in the asteroid's spin and orbit, can be assessed using ground based observations. We find that such a mission can indeed provide valuable constraints on mitigation relevant parameters. Furthermore, the here proposed kinetic impact scenarios can be implemented within the next two decades without threatening Earth's safety.
The exact mechanisms of the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular events are not yet fully understood; however, oxidative stress may be involved. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol and fish oil on catecholamine-induced mortality in obese rats. To begin with, rats were divided into five groups: (1) lean, (2) obese, (3) obese supplemented with resveratrol, (4) obese supplemented with fish oil and (5) obese supplemented with resveratrol and fish oil (n 18 rats per group), for 2 months. After supplementation, the groups were subdivided as with (n 10) and without (n 8) cardiovascular catecholaminergic stress after isoproterenol (60 mg/kg) injection. At 24 h later, the survival rate was analysed. The obese group showed lower survival rates (10 %) when compared with the lean group (70 %). On the other hand, resveratrol (50 %) and fish oil (40 %) increased the survival rate of obese rats (χ2 test, P= 0·019). Biochemical analyses of the myocardium and aorta revealed that obese rats had higher levels of superoxide and oxidative damage to lipids and protein. This was associated with reduced superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in both the myocardium and aorta. The supplementation increased antioxidant enzyme activities and reduced oxidative damage. We also evaluated the nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 antioxidant pathway. Nrf2 protein levels that were reduced in obese rats were increased by the antioxidant treatment. Taken together, these results showed that resveratrol and fish oil reduce catecholamine-induced mortality in obese rats, partly through the reduction of oxidative stress.
Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Nylon-6 nanohybrids were prepared by in situ polymerization under microwave irradiation. The effect of time and power of irradiation on the surface conductivity of the nanohybrid was studied. It was observed that the resistivity increases with irradiation time at low microwave power (200W). On the other hand, at high power (600W) an opposite behavior was observed. And at intermediate power (400W) the resistivity was independent of the irradiation time. Resistivity values range from 102 to 101 Ω/sq. This behavior was associated with the polymer nanocoating covering the surface of the carbon nanotubes.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an efficient photocatalyst. It is, however, fully activated only under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Thus some research has been addressed to modify TiO2 so that it becomes sensitive to visible (Vis) light. The aim of this work was to modify the catalytic activation wavelength of TiO2 films by N2 plasma surface treatment. For such a purpose, sol-gel method was used to coat glass substrates with TiO2 films. The films so obtained were characterized by Raman Spectroscopy and SEM. For N2 plasma treatment, the films were exposed to N2 plasma and the effect of exposure time, N2 pressure and electric conditions on TiO2 photocatalytic activity under sunlight was studied. The photocatalytic activity was established via methylene blue (MB) degradation.