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Several studies have independently suggested that patients with schizophrenia are more likely to have an enlarged cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and an absent adhesio interthalamica (AI), respectively. However, neither finding has been consistently replicated and it is unclear whether there is an association between these two midline brain abnormalities. Thus, we compared the prevalence of absent AI and the prevalence, size and volume of CSP in 38 patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no between group differences in the presence or volume of CSP; however, an enlarged CSP was commoner among patients than controls. There was also a positive correlation between CSP ratings and volumes. No differences in the presence or absence of the AI were found between patients and controls; however, an absent AI was commoner in male patients with schizophrenia than females. There was absolutely no overlap between the presence of a large CSP and an absence of AI. In conclusion, our findings are in line with several case series and other MRI investigations that have shown a higher incidence of putatively developmental brain abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in males, and support the neurodevelopmental model of this disorder.
How important has the sea been in the development of human history? Very important indeed is the conclusion of this ground-breaking four volume work. The books bring together the world's leading maritime historians, who address the question of what difference the sea has made in relation to around 250 situations ranging from the earliest times to the present. They consider, across the entire world, subjects related to human migration, trade, economic development, warfare, the building of political units including states and empires, the dissemination of ideas, culture and religion, and much more, showing how the sea was crucial to all these aspects of human development. The Sea in History - The Ancient World ranges very widely in its coverage, beginning with pre-historicalmaritime activity and going on to cover not only the classical Greek and Roman Mediterranean and Near Eastern worlds but also Africa, Asia and the Americas. Fascinating subjects covered include the migration of the Taíno people in the pre-historic Caribbean, the Athenian maritime empire at its height, the port of Alexandria in classical times, and ships, sailors and kingdoms in ancient SoutheastAsia.
25 of the contributions are in English; 18 are in French.
PHILIP DE SOUZA is Associate Professor of Classics at University College Dublin.
PASCAL ARNAUD is Professor of the History of the Roman World at the University of Lyon II, Senior Fellow at Institut Universitaire de France and co-director of the ERC-funded Grant Portus-Limen. CHRISTIAN BUCHET is Professor of Maritime History, Catholic University of Paris, Scientific Director of Océanides and a member of l'Académie de marine.
ABSTRACT.This contribution focuses on the birth, growth, and organization of the maritime Empire built by Athens in the 5th century, and shows how new and shocking this was. This Empire provides the first well-documented example of the extensive use of purpose-built warships. The author examines its military aspects and points out that Athenian fleets were less involved in war at sea than in the transport of troops and rapid-strike forces. He then re-evaluates the importance of the land forces with respect to the fleets. As for its political evolution, the author examines the evolution of the Delian League from a genuine Confederation to dominion under Athenian rule.
RÉSUMÉ.Cette contribution s'intéresse à la naissance, au développement et à l'organisation de l'empire maritime bâti par Athènes au Ve siècle, et témoigne aussi bien de sa nouveauté que du bouleversement qu'il provoqua. L'empire représente le premier exemple réellement bien documenté de l'usage étendu de navires spécialement conçus à des fins stratégiques. En examinant ses aspects militaires, l'auteur révèle que les flottes de guerre étaient plus impliquées dans le transport des troupes et des forces d'intervention rapide que dans le combat en mer, et réévalue par la suite l'importance des forces terrestres par rapport aux flottes. Sur le plan politique, il étudie l'évolution de la Ligue de Délos et son passage d'un statut de confédération véritable à celui de domaines sous l'emprise du joug athénien.
The aim of this contribution is to show how the use of the sea to project military power, through the deployment of fleets of purpose-built trireme warships, changed the course of Classical Athenian history, making Athens a major regional power and stimulating economic prosperity and cultural development in the fifth century BC. It enabled the Athenians to exploit their own resources of population for political power and to harness the resources of their subject allies. It was the key a factor in their success. The focus of the paper is the period following the expulsion of the forces of the Persian king Xerxes from mainland Greece.
War and peace are familiar terms to historians, yet in Antiquity and the High Middle Ages they conveyed a variety of meanings. The ten new essays in this book examine the processes of the making and breaking of peace treaties and truces, challenging many traditional assumptions. They discuss how far political conventions and legalities mattered in agreements that were based not so much on trust as on recognition of the practical limits of military and political power, and they show how conventions and solemn agreements were frequently reinterpreted and manipulated for political ends. We begin with four chapters that span a period of a thousand years from Classical Greece to Imperial Rome.
In the first of these chapters, P. J. Rhodes analyses a series of important peace treaties from the Greek world of the fifth and fourth centuries bc, examining how far the specific terms of an agreement really mattered to the different parties, and what it took to break a treaty. He does not feel that the Classical Greek states were consciously deceitful in their dealings with each other, but argues that during the fourth century bc they tended to insert ambiguous clauses into their treaties, which they would be able to interpret to their own advantage.
Eduard Rung's chapter considers how international relations were conducted between the Greek states and their powerful eastern neighbour, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.