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It has been an underlying assumption in many studies that near-surface layers imaged by ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be interpreted as depositional markers or isochrones. It has been shown that GPR layers can be approximately reproduced from the measured electrical properties of ice, but these material layers are generally narrower and more closely spaced than can be resolved by typical GPR systems operating in the range 50−400 MHz. Thus GPR layers should be interpreted as interference patterns produced from closely spaced and potentially discontinuous material layers, and should not be assumed to be interpretable as precise markers of isochrones. We present 100 MHz GPR data from Lyddan Ice Rise, Antarctica, in which near-surface (<50 m deep) layers are clearly imaged. The growth of the undulations in these layers with depth is approximately linear, implying that, rather than resulting from a pattern of vertical strain rate, they do correspond to some pattern of snowfall variation. Furthermore, comparison of the GPR layers with snow-stake measurements suggests that around 80% of the rms variability in mean annual accumulation is present in the GPR layers. The observations suggest that, at least in this case, the GPR layers do approximate isochrones, and that patterns of snow accumulation over Lyddan Ice Rise are dominated by extremely persistent spatial variations with only a small residual spatial variability. If this condition is shown to be widely applicable it may reduce the period required for measurements of surface elevation change to be taken as significant indications of mass imbalance.
Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a popular logic programming paradigm that has been applied for solving a variety of complex problems. Among the most challenging real-world applications of ASP are two industrial problems defined by Siemens: the Partner Units Problem (PUP) and the Combined Configuration Problem (CCP). The hardest instances of PUP and CCP are out of reach for state-of-the-art ASP solvers. Experiments show that the performance of ASP solvers could be significantly improved by embedding domain-specific heuristics, but a proper effective integration of such criteria in off-the-shelf ASP implementations is not obvious. In this paper the combination of ASP and domain-specific heuristics is studied with the goal of effectively solving real-world problem instances of PUP and CCP. As a byproduct of this activity, the ASP solver wasp was extended with an interface that eases embedding new external heuristics in the solver. The evaluation shows that our domain-heuristic-driven ASP solver finds solutions for all the real-world instances of PUP and CCP ever provided by Siemens.
In the days following our Joint Discussion the Co-editors were joined by two of the participants, Dr. Ivan King and Dr. Uli Steinlin, in an effort to evaluate results reported as well as the problems posed for future work. As a result of these discussions at Grenoble the present listing was made. This list was presented to members of the Organizing Committee but since it was impossible in the last days at Grenoble to convene this group or to speak collegially with all participants it must remain the responsibility of the above-named authors. It cannot be a complete resumé nor can it presume to represent adequately the varied opinions expressed at Grenoble on 25 August. We hope here only to attempt a synthesis of certain evident results and to outline certain prospects for exploring further the exciting problems of structure and evolution in the galactic polar caps.
This study investigates the expression of past temporal reference in a highly conservative variety of Acadian French spoken in the Baie Sainte-Marie region of Nova Scotia, Canada. Variationist analysis of data from a sociolinguistic corpus for the village of Grosses Coques reveals a split between narrative and conversational discourse, with variation mainly between use of the passé simple and the imparfait in the former and between the passé composé and the imparfait in the latter. The passé simple remains in robust use in this variety and is constrained in a manner similar to that found in 17th-century representations of colloquial speech involving narration.
This article is concerned with the role of media representations of language use in the promotion of language ideologies and in identity construction. It focuses on media representations of Chiac, a traditionally low-status variety of Acadian French. We consider performances of this variety in the adventures of an animated superhero, Acadieman, presented in a cable TV show running on Rogers TV from 2005 to 2009. We first contextualize Acadieman in terms of the linguistic and cultural contexts in which Chiac is spoken. We then consider how particular social meanings are created through contrasts between Chiac-speaking characters and speakers of other varieties. While the juxtaposition of varieties is at one level quite humorous, on another level it draws on complex indexicalities and valorizes the local variety and, by extension, its speakers. Finally, we argue that the Acadieman phenomenon provides a discursive space within which present-day Acadian identities can be negotiated.
Solid-State Amorphization (SSA) of crystalline interfaces is observed in the Ni/Ti multilayer system. The amorphization reaction nucleates at location(s) of crystallographic disorder, i.e. the multilayer interfaces. Microstructural analyses reveal the sputter-deposited growth structure to be epitaxial with semi-coherent interfaces. Strain energy originating from interface lattice distortions varies as a function of the multilayer repeat spacing. Therefore, the interfacial energy effects the onset conditions for SSA. Differential thermal analysis is used to measure the critical temperature Tc, to the nucleation of the SSA, which is found to vary with the Ni/Ti multilayer pair spacing.
A 4Mb magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) with a novel magnetic free layer and toggle switching mode is presented. The new free layer uses a balanced synthetic-antiferromagnet trilayer structure and a novel write pulse sequence to provide robust switching performance with immunity from ½-select disturbs. This new mode greatly improves the switching performance of the MRAM as compared to conventional MRAM. The intrinsic reliability of the magnetoresistive tunnel junction (MTJ) and the metal interconnect system of MRAM are two other areas of great interest due to the new materials involved. Time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and resistance drift were the two main failure mechanisms identified for intrinsic memory bit reliability. Results indicated that a lifetime over 10 years is achievable under the operating conditions. Finally data retention is demonstrated over times that are orders of magnitude longer than 10 years.
Pt, Ir, Ni, Pd, and silver oxide Schottky contacts were fabricated on the Zn-polar surface of hydrothermally grown bulk ZnO. A relationship was observed between the barrier height of the contact and the free energy of formation of the “metal” oxide. This is consistent with the dominating influence of oxygen vacancies (VO) which tend to pin the ZnO Fermi level close to the VO (+2,0) defect level at approximately EC - 0.7 eV, where EC is the conduction band minimum. Valence band x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and the current - voltage characteristics of planar Schottky diodes, measured on similar Zn-polar surfaces, showed the existence of a vacuum activated surface accumulation layer. This is possibly a consequence of the observed OH termination of the Zn-polar surface. The surface accumulation layer is compensated in atmospheric conditions by the presence of acceptor-like adsorbates, such as O2 and H2O. The formation of high quality Schottky contacts to ZnO should therefore involve the reduction of near surface oxygen vacancies and the removal of H or OH from the surface.
This chapter presents the clinical history, examination, and the results of the procedures performed on a patient who was a 14-year-old young woman who, according to her parents, has had problems sleeping for several years. The results of the studies showed that the patient had a total of 144 sleep-related respiratory events, with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 22.47 per hour. There were 140 central apneas and four hypopneas, with 126 events occurring in NREM sleep. The diagnosis was Chiari 1 malformation with associated central sleep apnea. The patient also had a syrinx from C3 through the thoracic cord. Treatment of Chiari 1 malformation involves suboccipital decompression (posterior fossa craniectomy), with or without upper cervical laminectomy. In this case too, the patient underwent suboccipital decompression, and remained in the hospital for 4 days, with some immediate post-operative sleep-related apneas but subsequent significant improvement of sleep.
So far we have mapped out some basic issues. We know about the identities of perpetrators and victims. We also know what the commonplace forms of incivility look like. We have found out where and when and even why many encounters with rude strangers take place. In this chapter things become a little more complex. As we explained at the outset, this book is a study of encounters between two people. Here we look at how these meetings unfold over time. We focus on two important questions: just how do people feel when they encounter the rude stranger? What, if anything, do they do to remedy the situation?
Emotions and incivility
The existing literature suggests that we already know the answer to both these questions. Writing back in the early 1970s the famous symbolic interactionist Erving Goffman (1971) established the template with his work Relations in Public. Here the life of city dwellers is described as one revolving around suspicion and mistrust. As they navigate urban spaces they scan for dangers, constantly on guard and feeling unease. The emotions of fear and anxiety are barely suppressed and the encounter with the incivil other is traumatizing. Individuals develop action strategies of retreat and avoidance. This vision has been amplified more recently in the critical sociology of Zygmunt Bauman (2003), who identifies ‘mixophobic’ sentiments in the metropolis and suggests that social life is organized such that individuals avoid encounters with difference and risk as they move between secure bubbles dotted around the city: the home in a gated community, the mall, the country club, the office.
Our major finding in our previous chapter was the very ordinary quality of incivility. It took place in everyday locations like the supermarket and car park. Rude people were generally not thugs, lurkers or even troublesome teens. They were as diverse in terms of age, gender and appearance as their victims. We also showed that rudeness could be found in a variety of low-level impolite acts. These were not threatening, malicious or crime-related deeds. Finally, a substantial proportion of events involved movement. Put together these clues suggest that rudeness should be studied as a commonplace rather than exceptional act. It is somehow structured into the opportunity spaces of daily life. It is a product of our mundane trajectories through public environments where there are strangers.
Routine activity and predictable incivility
One way to think about this finding is with routine activity theory (Cohen and Felson 1979). Developed in the field of criminology, this shifts our attention away from the study of deviants and offenders towards the analysis of situations and opportunities. The argument is that we can understand certain forms of crime without having to inquire into motivations, or without looking to faulty values and failed socialization for our explanatory context. Arguing that any given crime has to take place at a certain time and at a certain place, routine activity theory asks questions such as: when do victims and offenders come together? At what time of day are guardians away from attractive property? How do people keep safe?
When unexpected or bad things happen to people they try to make sense of them or to cope in various other ways with the shock of what has happened. This is particularly the case with traumatic events. Further, unusual, dangerous or serious episodes can change our mental outlook and behaviours. In this chapter we explore the implications of rude stranger encounters. We start with coping.
Coping and ontological security
Much of what we know about coping is informed by the literatures in social-psychology and criminology and concerns how people cope, and hopefully recover, from very serious events: rape; incest; predatory violent crime; domestic violence; bereavement; life threatening injury. We do not wish to claim that an encounter with a rude stranger is in the same domain as such tragic misfortunes. Most obviously intense physical or psychological harms are missing. Still, the case could be made that the encounter with the rude stranger requires some adjustments. Further, it is important that as outside observers we do not prejudge. What might seem trivial from our Olympian perspective could be deeply meaningful as a personal experience.
The argument that the rude stranger encounter well might require some coping is suggested circumstantially by findings from earlier in this book. We reported in Chapters 3, 4 and 5 that in a large number of cases people were surprised by what had happened to them. Further, many times our victims had strong initial emotional reactions, including anger, disgust and fear.