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We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery has the potential to overcome several limitations of cancer chemotherapy. Lipid polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs) have been demonstrated to exhibit superior cellular delivery efficacy. Hence, doxorubicin (a chemotherapeutic drug)-loaded LPHNPs have been synthesized by three-dimensional (3D)-printed herringbone-patterned multi-inlet vortex mixer. This method offers rapid and efficient mixing of reactants yielding controllable and reproducible synthesis of LPHNPs. The cytotoxicity of LPHNPs is tested using two-dimensional (2D) and 3D microenvironments. Results obtained from 3D cell cultures showed major differences in cytotoxicity in comparison with 2D cultures. These results have broad implications in predicting in vitro LPHNP toxicology.
Modern welfare regimes rest on a range of actors – state, market, family/households, employers and charities – but austerity programmes diminish the contribution of the state. While changes in this ‘welfare mix’ require support from the population, attitude studies have focused mainly on people’s views on state responsibilities, using welfare regime theory to explain differences. This paper contributes to our understanding of the welfare mix by including other providers such as the market, the family or employers, and also introduces social risk theories, contrasting new and old risks. Regime theory implies differences will persist over time, but risk theory suggests that growing similarities in certain risks may tend to promote international convergence. This article examines attitudes to the roles of state, market, family, charity/community and employer for pension and childcare in Germany and the UK. We collected data using deliberative forums, a new method in social policy research that allows citizens space to pursue extended lightly moderated discussion and permits researchers to analyse people’s justifications for their attitudes. Our research indicated patterns of convergence especially in preferences for childcare, but that regime predominates in people’s justifications for their attitudes: regime differences in attitudes are resilient.
The heat transfer properties of the organic molecular crystal α-RDX were studied using three phonon scattering based thermal conductivity models. It was found that the widely used Peierls-Boltzmann model for thermal transport in crystalline materials breaks down for α-RDX. We show this breakdown is due to a large degree of anharmonicity that leads to a dominance of diffusive-like carriers. Despite being developed for disordered systems, the Allen-Feldman theory for thermal conductivity actually gives the best description of thermal transport. This is likely because diffusive carriers contribute to over 95% of the thermal conductivity in α-RDX. The dominance of diffusive carriers is larger than previously observed in other fully ordered crystalline systems. These results indicate that van der Waals bonded organic crystalline solids conduct heat in a manner more akin to amorphous materials than simple atomic crystals.
Although relapse in psychosis is common, a small proportion of patients will not relapse in the long term. We examined the proportion and predictors of patients who never relapsed in the 10 years following complete resolution of positive symptoms from their first psychotic episode.
Patients who previously enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial on medication discontinuation and relapse following first-episode psychosis (FEP) were followed up after 10 years. Relapse of positive symptoms was operationalized as a change from a Clinical Global Impression scale positive score of <3 for at least 3 consecutive months to a score of ⩾3 (mild or more severe). Baseline predictors included basic demographics, premorbid functioning, symptoms, functioning, and neurocognitive functioning.
Out of 178 first-episode patients, 37 (21%) never relapsed during the 10-year period. Univariate predictors (p ⩽ 0.1) of patients who never relapsed included a duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) ⩽30 days, diagnosed with non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders, having less severe negative symptoms, and performing better in logical memory immediate recall and verbal fluency tests. A multivariate logistic regression analysis further suggested that the absence of any relapsing episodes was significantly related to better short-term verbal memory, shorter DUP, and non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Treatment delay and neurocognitive function are potentially modifiable predictors of good long-term prognosis in FEP. These predictors are informative as they can be incorporated into an optimum risk prediction model in the future, which would help with clinical decision making regarding maintenance treatment in FEP.
Cohort effects are important factors in determining the evolution of human mortality for certain countries. Extensions of dynamic mortality models with cohort features have been proposed in the literature to account for these factors under the generalised linear modelling framework. In this paper we approach the problem of mortality modelling with cohort factors incorporated through a novel formulation under a state-space methodology. In the process we demonstrate that cohort factors can be formulated naturally under the state-space framework, despite the fact that cohort factors are indexed according to year-of-birth rather than year. Bayesian inference for cohort models in a state-space formulation is then developed based on an efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler, allowing for the quantification of parameter uncertainty in cohort models and resulting mortality forecasts that are used for life expectancy and life table constructions. The effectiveness of our approach is examined through comprehensive empirical studies involving male and female populations from various countries. Our results show that cohort patterns are present for certain countries that we studied and the inclusion of cohort factors are crucial in capturing these phenomena, thus highlighting the benefits of introducing cohort models in the state-space framework. Forecasting of cohort models is also discussed in light of the projection of cohort factors.
This paper explores and develops alternative statistical representations and estimation approaches for dynamic mortality models. The framework we adopt is to reinterpret popular mortality models such as the Lee–Carter class of models in a general state-space modelling methodology, which allows modelling, estimation and forecasting of mortality under a unified framework. We propose alternative model identification constraints which are more suited to statistical inference in filtering and parameter estimation. We then develop a class of Bayesian state-space models which incorporate a priori beliefs about the mortality model characteristics as well as for more flexible and appropriate assumptions relating to heteroscedasticity that present in observed mortality data. To study long-term mortality dynamics, we introduce stochastic volatility to the period effect. The estimation of the resulting stochastic volatility model of mortality is performed using a recent class of Monte Carlo procedure known as the class of particle Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We illustrate the framework using Danish male mortality data, and show that incorporating heteroscedasticity and stochastic volatility markedly improves model fit despite an increase of model complexity. Forecasting properties of the enhanced models are examined with long-term and short-term calibration periods on the reconstruction of life tables.
Conformational changes, and the formation of densely packed ordered aggregates or crystals, are behaviors that profoundly affect the properties of a molecule. Using the example of biological macromolecules, we discuss two types of interactions between these two behaviors. First, we demonstrate that shape change may be driven by crystallization if the gain in crystallization free energy is sufficient to overcome the transition to an unfavorable molecular conformation. Hence, the crystal structures of flexible molecules may be a poor representation of their free-phase atomic arrangements. Second, molecules with conformational variability, such as proteins, may facilitate the nucleation of their crystals by forming dense liquid clusters enriched in domain-swapped or misassembled oligomers. In the clusters, the nucleation barrier is reduced due to the lower surface free energy of the crystal/dense liquid interface, and nucleation is significantly faster.
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in the tropics. The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a preliminary evaluation of genetic diversity in bitter gourd flesh (without seeds) for phytonutrient (carotenoid, ascorbic acid and tocopherol) contents with the aim to understand which phytonutrients might be increased through breeding, (2) assess the association between fruit traits and phytonutrient contents and (3) evaluate the effect of the fruit harvest stage on phytonutrient contents. A total of 17 diverse bitter gourd entries of various commercial market types were evaluated for fruit traits and phytonutrient contents for 2 years. Significant differences (P= 0.05) among the entries were detected for total carotenoids, total tocopherols, dry matter and fruit traits. Mean total carotenoid contents of the entries ranged from 10 to 1335 μg/100 g fresh weight in year 1 and 10 to 1185 μg/100 g fresh weight in year 2. Mean ascorbic acid contents were 69 and 61 mg/100 g fresh weight in year 1 and year 2, respectively. Total tocopherol contents among the entries ranged from 480 to 1345 and 445 to 2145 μg/100 g fresh weight in year 1 and year 2, respectively. Total carotenoid and ascorbic acid contents were highest at 12 days after fruit set (DAFS), but total tocopherol contents were highest from 14 to 20 DAFS. A 100 g portion of bitter gourd fruit can meet 190, 17 and 8% of the recommended daily allowances of vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin A, respectively, for adults.
Recently, metal-halide perovskites have demonstrated an extraordinarily rapid
advance in single junction cell efficiency to over 20%, while still offering
potentially low costs. Since the bandgap is larger than the ideal
single-junction value, perovskite-based tandem cells can theoretically offer
even higher efficiencies. Instead, however, the record tandem cell performance
in experiments to date has come in slightly below that of record single
junctions, although slightly higher than the same single junctions. In this
work, we consider both how this disconnect can be explained quantitatively, and
then devise experimentally feasible, variance-aware approaches to address them.
The first stage of our approach is based on reconfiguring dielectric front
coatings to help reduce net reflected power and balance junction currents by
reshaping the reflection peaks. This method could be applied to post-fabrication
stage of perovskite/c-Si tandem cells, and also applicable to cell and module
level structures. In the second stage of our approach, we can almost entirely
eliminate Fresnel reflection by applying a conformal periodic light trapping
structure. In the best case, a short circuit current (Jsc) of 18.0
mA/cm2 was achieved, after accounting for 4.8 mA/cm2
of parasitic loss and 1.6 mA/cm2 reflection loss. Further
improvements may require a change in the baseline materials used in perovskite
On April 15, 2013, two improvised explosive devices (IEDs) exploded at the Boston Marathon and 264 patients were treated at 26 hospitals in the aftermath. Despite the extent of injuries sustained by victims, there was no subsequent mortality for those treated in hospitals. Leadership decisions and actions in major trauma centers were a critical factor in this response.
The objective of this investigation was to describe and characterize organizational dynamics and leadership themes immediately after the bombings by utilizing a novel structured sequential qualitative approach consisting of a focus group followed by subsequent detailed interviews and combined expert analysis.
Across physician leaders representing 7 hospitals, several leadership and management themes emerged from our analysis: communications and volunteer surges, flexibility, the challenge of technology, and command versus collaboration.
Disasters provide a distinctive context in which to study the robustness and resilience of response systems. Therefore, in the aftermath of a large-scale crisis, every effort should be invested in forming a coalition and collecting critical lessons so they can be shared and incorporated into best practices and preparations. Novel communication strategies, flexible leadership structures, and improved information systems will be necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality during future events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:489–495)
Several types of multiplexers based on isolation circuits have been introduced and investigated. Combining method of two filtering circuits (CMTC) is one way to make multiplexers based on isolation circuits. This method fits well for designing contiguous channel triplexers. A triplexer based on CMTC consists of a conventional transmission line (TL) connected to a diplexer and a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) TL connected to a filter. The triplexer based on CMTC has two significant advantages. One is that it is not necessary to modify the design of a stand-alone filter and diplexer and there is freedom in the choice of filtering circuits. In addition, a designer does not need to perform three-dimensional full-wave optimization, because of a simple and straightforward design concept. In this paper, a triplexer prototype having 1, 1.125, and 1.25 GHz center frequencies, is designed and fabricated. The measured results show good agreement with the simulation results.
The formation and strength of dislocations in the hexagonal closed-packed material are studied through dislocation junctions and the critical stress required to completely break them. Dislocation dynamics calculations of junctions are compared to an analytical line tension approximation in order to verify the simulations. Results show agreements between the models. Also the critical shear stress necessary to break a short and a long dislocation junction is computed numerically. Unzipping envelopes are mapped out for these junctions to describe their stability regions as functions of resolved shear stresses on the glide planes. The example of two non-coplanar binary dislocation junctions with slip systems [2 -1 -1 0] (0 1 -1 0) and [-1 2 -1 0] (0 0 0 1) corresponding to a prismatic and basal slip respectively is chosen to verify and validate our implementation.
Effects of very high frequency- plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) using diluted ultrapure silane at higher dilution ratio (R>30) on microstructures and optical characteristics of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) film were studied. Nanocrystalline silicon films were prepared by at RF power ranging from 50 to 300 W. It was found that the transition from amorphous phase to nanocrystalline phase occurred between 100 W and 150 W. The nucleation mechanism toward nc-Si:H near the transition point of amorphous phase was discussed based on transmission electron microscopy with atomic scale. Further, it is suggested from UV-visible spectroscopy that nc-Si:H films with the best optical properties would be obtained near the transition point from the amorphous phase to the crystalline phase.