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Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Despite the prevalence of antidepressant-related sexual side effects, comparisons of treatments for these problematic side effects are lacking.
To address this, we performed a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis to compare interventions for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in adults. Using PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov, we identified published and unpublished prospective treatment trials from 1985 to September 2020 (primary outcome: the Arizona sexual experience scale [ASEX] score). The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework.
We identified 57 citations (27 randomized controlled trials, 66 treatment arms, 27 open-label trials, and 3 crossover trials) that evaluated 33 interventions (3108 patients). In the systematic review, 44% (25/57) of trials reported successful interventions; this was more common in open-label (70%, 19/27) compared to placebo-controlled studies (22%, 6/27). In the meta-analysis of placebo-controlled studies that used the ASEX (N = 8), pycnogenol was superior to placebo (standardized mean difference: −1.8, 95% credible interval [CrI]: [−3.7 to 0.0]) and there was evidence that, at a 6% threshold, sildenafil improved sexual dysfunction (standardized mean difference: −1.2, 95% CrI [−2.5 to 0.1]). In the meta-analysis including single-arm studies (15 studies), treatment response was more common with sildenafil, tianeptine, maca, tiagabine, and mirtazapine compared to placebo, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance.
While heterogeneity across randomized controlled trials complicates identifying the single best intervention, multiple trials suggest that sildenafil ameliorates antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. More randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the putative efficacy of other interventions.
The current study sought to examine the relationship between documented social media use and suicidality and self-injurious behaviors in adolescents at the time of psychiatric hospitalization.
We retrospectively identified adolescents (aged 12-17 years) hospitalized on an inpatient psychiatric unit during 1 year. Abstracted information included documented social media use, demographic variables, documented self-injurious behaviors, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Suicide Status Form-II. Logistic regression was implemented to examine the effect of social media use on the risk of self-injurious behaviors and suicidality.
Fifty-six adolescents who used social media were identified and matched with 56 non-social media users. Those with reported social media use had significantly greater odds of self-injurious behaviors at admission (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence intervals, 1.17-5.71; P = .02) vs youth without reported social media use. Adolescents with reported social media use also had greater odds of increased suicidal ideation and suicide risk than those with no reported use, but these relationships were not statistically significant.
Social media use in adolescents with a psychiatric admission may be associated with the risk of self-injurious behaviors and could be a marker of impulsivity. Further work should guide the assessment of social media use as part of a routine adolescent psychiatric history.
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