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Despite theoretical support for including mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) with peacebuilding, few programmes in conflict-affected regions fully integrate these approaches.
To describe and assess preliminary outcomes of the Counselling on Wheels programme delivered by the NEEM Foundation in the Borno State of North-East Nigeria.
We first describe the components of the Counselling on Wheels programme, including education and advocacy for peace and social cohesion through community peacebuilding partnerships and activities, and an MHPSS intervention open to all adults, delivered in groups of eight to ten people. We then conducted secondary analysis of data from 1550 adults who took part in the MHPSS intervention, who provided data at baseline and 1–2 weeks after the final group session. Vulnerability to violent extremism was assessed with a locally developed 80-item scale. Symptoms of common mental disorders were assessed with the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (PTSD-8). Data were analysed through a mixed-effect linear regression model, accounting for clustering by community and adjusted for age and gender.
After taking part in group MHPSS, scores fell for depression (−5.8, 95% CI −6.7 to −5.0), stress (−5.5, 95% CI −6.3 to −4.6), post-traumatic stress disorder (−2.9, 95% CI −3.4 to −2.4) and vulnerability to violent extremism (−44.6, 95% CI −50.6 to −38.6).
The Counselling on Wheels programme shows promise as a model for integrating MHPSS with community peacebuilding activities in this conflict-affected region of Africa.
We recently reported on the radio-frequency attenuation length of cold polar ice at Summit Station, Greenland, based on bi-static radar measurements of radio-frequency bedrock echo strengths taken during the summer of 2021. Those data also allow studies of (a) the relative contributions of coherent (such as discrete internal conducting layers with sub-centimeter transverse scale) vs incoherent (e.g. bulk volumetric) scattering, (b) the magnitude of internal layer reflection coefficients, (c) limits on signal propagation velocity asymmetries (‘birefringence’) and (d) limits on signal dispersion in-ice over a bandwidth of ~100 MHz. We find that (1) attenuation lengths approach 1 km in our band, (2) after averaging 10 000 echo triggers, reflected signals observable over the thermal floor (to depths of ~1500 m) are consistent with being entirely coherent, (3) internal layer reflectivities are ≈–60$\to$–70 dB, (4) birefringent effects for vertically propagating signals are smaller by an order of magnitude relative to South Pole and (5) within our experimental limits, glacial ice is non-dispersive over the frequency band relevant for neutrino detection experiments.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
Melanie Fennell’s (1997) seminal cognitive approach to low self-esteem was published in Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. The current paper proposes a refined model, drawing on social theories, and research with people with socially devalued characteristics. This model emphasises how self-esteem relates to perceptions of one’s value in the eyes of others. It is proposed that core beliefs typical of low self-esteem relate to one’s value in relation to personal adequacy (e.g. having worth or status) and/or to social connection (e.g. being liked, loved, accepted or included). In each of these value domains, beliefs about both the self (e.g. ‘I am a failure’, ‘I am unlovable’) and others (e.g. ‘Others look down on me’, ‘Others don’t care about me’) are considered important. The model suggests that everyone monitors their value but in people with low self-esteem, cognitive biases associated with underlying beliefs occur. In the context of trigger situations, this results in a greater likelihood of negative appraisals of perceived threat to one’s value. Such appraisals activate underlying negative beliefs, resulting in negative mood (e.g. low mood, anxiety, shame, disgust) and other responses that maintain low self-esteem. Responses which can be used excessively or in unhelpful ways include (a) corrective behaviours; (b) compensatory strategies; (c) increased value monitoring; (d) safety-seeking behaviours; (e) rumination; (f) unhelpful mood regulation responses. These responses can adversely impact daily functioning or health, having the counterproductive effect of maintaining negative beliefs about one’s value. Examples are provided for low self-esteem in lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To increase the diversity of the health sciences research workforce, students from a variety of backgrounds must have the opportunity to participate in hands-on research experiences that highlight translating science to treating human disease. We developed a mentored translational research program for students from VCU and central Virginia HBCUs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Wright Regional Center for Clinical and Translational Science collaborated with the existing VCU Honors’ Summer Undergraduate Research Program (HSURP) to expand their summer research experience to URM students from our partner HBCUs. For 10 weeks, students worked with faculty mentors to learn research techniques and engage in research projects. Students also participated in career development sessions like developing a CV and choosing graduate programs, and at the end of HSURP, they shared formal presentations of their research with peers and mentors. HSURP students were provided housing and a stipend, and mentors were provided a stipend. A post-program assessment gathered feedback on research and personal skills gained, the program’s influence on their career goals, and overall experiences with HSURP. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine students, 7 from VCU and 2 from Virginia State University participated in HSURP. Students were rising sophomores, juniors, and seniors, and 5 had previous research experience. Students worked on projects ranging from basic to social behavioral, community-placed research. All students rated the program as good or excellent. Post-program assessments showed all students believed they had a better understanding of ethical responsibilities of researchers, relevance of community-engaged and clinical/translational research, and interpreting journal articles after participating in the program. Four students reported they plan to continue working on their research projects during the academic year, and all students strongly agreed or agreed that HSURP prepared them for graduate or professional schools. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A program that combines hands-on research training and career development opportunities provides a robust research foundation for URM students, which can increase their participation in the translational science workforce. Future program development will include preprogram training modules to better prepare students for research experiences.
We evaluated the added value of infection control-guided, on demand, and locally performed severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic sequencing to support outbreak investigation and control in acute-care settings.
Design and setting:
This 18-month prospective molecular epidemiology study was conducted at a tertiary-care hospital in Montreal, Canada. When nosocomial transmission was suspected by local infection control, viral genomic sequencing was performed locally for all putative outbreak cases. Molecular and conventional epidemiology data were correlated on a just-in-time basis to improve understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission and reinforce or adapt control measures.
Between April 2020 and October 2021, 6 outbreaks including 59 nosocomial infections (per the epidemiological definition) were investigated. Genomic data supported 7 distinct transmission clusters involving 6 patients and 26 healthcare workers. We identified multiple distinct modes of transmission, which led to reinforcement and adaptation of infection control measures. Molecular epidemiology data also refuted (n = 14) suspected transmission events in favor of community acquired but institutionally clustered cases.
SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing can refute or strengthen transmission hypotheses from conventional nosocomial epidemiological investigations, and guide implementation of setting-specific control strategies. Our study represents a template for prospective, on site, outbreak-focused SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. This approach may become increasingly relevant in a COVID-19 endemic state where systematic sequencing within centralized surveillance programs is not available.
A critical step in research on the epidemiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low-resource settings is the validation of brief self-reported psychometric tools available in the public domain, such as the Impact Event Scale – Revised (IES-R).
We aimed to investigate the validity of the IES-R in a primary healthcare setting in Harare, Zimbabwe.
We analysed data from a survey of 264 consecutively sampled adults (mean age 38 years; 78% female). We estimated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios for different cut-off points of the IES-R, against a diagnosis of PTSD made using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We performed factor analysis to evaluate construct validity of the IES-R.
The prevalence of PTSD was 23.9% (95% CI 18.9–29.5). The area under the curve for the IES-R was 0.90. At a cut-off of ≥47, the sensitivity of the IES-R to detect PTSD was 84.1 (95% CI 72.7–92.1) and specificity was 81.1 (95% CI 75.0–86.3). Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 4.45 and 0.20, respectively. Factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution, with both factors showing good internal consistency (Cronbach's factor-1 α = 0.95, factor-2 α = 0.76). In a post hoc analysis, we found the brief six-item IES-6 also performed well, with an area under the curve of 0.87 and optimal cut-off of 15.
The IES-R and IES-6 had good psychometric properties and performed well for indicating possible PTSD, but at higher cut-off points than those recommended in the Global North.
Health justice seeks, both conceptually and in practice, to strengthen community engagement and empowerment as an integral means of addressing health disparities. In this essay, we explore the nature of communities and their roles in health care/public health. We propose that an ethical principle of respect for communities is a requisite part of health justice. It is this respect for communities that ethically grounds health justice’s calls for greater community engagement and empowerment. Conceptions of health justice, we claim, will gain ethical power and coherence as this principle is more clearly recognized and further developed.
The dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-DS) was introduced in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and is characterised by symptoms of either depersonalisation or derealisation, in addition to a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to estimate the point prevalence of current PTSD-DS, and the extent to which method of assessment, demographic and trauma variables moderate this estimate, across different methods of prevalence estimation. Studies included were identified by searching MEDLINE (EBSCO), PsycInfo, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete and PTSDpubs, yielding 49 studies that met the inclusion criteria (N = 8214 participants). A random-effects meta-analysis estimated the prevalence of PTSD-DS as 38.1% (95% CI 31.5–45.0%) across all samples, 45.5% (95% CI 37.7–53.4%) across all diagnosis-based and clinical cut-off samples, 22.8% (95% CI 14.8–32.0%) across all latent class analysis (LCA) and latent profile analysis (LPA) samples and 48.1% (95% CI 35.0–61.3%) across samples which strictly used the DSM-5 PTSD criteria; all as a proportion of those already with a diagnosis of PTSD. All results were characterised by high levels of heterogeneity, limiting generalisability. Moderator analyses mostly failed to identify sources of heterogeneity. PTSD-DS was more prevalent in children compared to adults, and in diagnosis-based and clinical cut-off samples compared to LCA and LPA samples. Risk of bias was not significantly related to prevalence estimates. The implications of these results are discussed further.
Healthcare facilities are a well-known high-risk environment for transmission of M. tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB) disease. However, the link between M. tuberculosis transmission in healthcare facilities and its role in the general TB epidemic is unknown. We estimated the proportion of overall TB transmission in the general population attributable to healthcare facilities.
We combined data from a prospective, population-based molecular epidemiologic study with a universal electronic medical record (EMR) covering all healthcare facilities in Botswana to identify biologically plausible transmission events occurring at the healthcare facility. Patients with M. tuberculosis isolates of the same genotype visiting the same facility concurrently were considered an overlapping event. We then used TB diagnosis and treatment data to categorize overlapping events into biologically plausible definitions. We calculated the proportion of overall TB cases in the cohort that could be attributable to healthcare facilities.
In total, 1,881 participants had TB genotypic and EMR data suitable for analysis, resulting in 46,853 clinical encounters at 338 healthcare facilities. We identified 326 unique overlapping events involving 370 individual patients; 91 (5%) had biologic plausibility for transmission occurring at a healthcare facility. A sensitivity analysis estimated that 3%–8% of transmission may be attributable to healthcare facilities.
Although effective interventions are critical in reducing individual risk for healthcare workers and patients at healthcare facilities, our findings suggest that development of targeted interventions aimed at community transmission may have a larger impact in reducing TB.
Records of abnormal fossil arthropods present important insight into how extinct forms responded to traumatic damage and developmental complications. Trilobites, bearing biomineralized dorsal exoskeletons, have arguably the most well-documented record of abnormalities spanning the Cambrian through the end-Permian. As such, new records of malformed, often injured, trilobites are occasionally identified. To further expand the documentation of abnormal specimens, we describe malformed specimens of Lyriaspis sigillum Whitehouse, 1939, Zacanthoides sp. indet., Asaphiscus wheeleri Meek, 1873, Elrathia kingii (Meek, 1870), and Ogygiocarella debuchii (Brongniart, 1822) from lower Paleozoic deposits. In considering these forms, we propose that they illustrate examples of injuries, and that the majority of these injuries reflect failed predation. We also considered the origin of injuries impacting singular segments, suggesting that these could reflect predation, self-induced damage, or intraspecific interactions during soft-shelled stages. Continued examination of lower Paleozoic trilobite injuries will further the understanding of how trilobites functioned as prey and elucidate how disparate trilobite groups recovered from failed attacks.
Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, an endospore-forming bacterial strain, was investigated to determine its methylation pattern (methylome) change, compared to ground control, after direct exposure to space conditions onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. The resulting ISS-flown and non-flown strains were sequenced using the Nanopore MinION and an in-house method and pipeline to identify methylated positions in the genome. Our analysis indicated genomic variants and m6A methylation increased in the ISS-flown SAFR-032. To complement the broader omics investigation and explore phenotypic changes, ISS-flown and non-flown strains were compared in a series of laboratory-based chamber experiments using an X-ray irradiation source (doses applied at 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1250 Gy); results show a potentially higher survival fraction of ISS-flown DS2 at the two highest exposures. Taken together, results from this study document lasting changes to the genome by methylation, potentially triggered by conditions in spaceflight, with functional consequences for the resistance of bacteria to stressors expected on long-duration missions beyond low Earth orbit.
To describe outcomes of acute coronavirus disease 2019 in paediatric and young adult patients with underlying cardiac disease and evaluate the association between cardiac risk factors and hospitalisation.
We conducted a retrospective single-institution review of patients with known cardiac disease and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RT-PCR from 1 March, 2020 to 30 November, 2020. Extracardiac comorbidities and cardiac risk factors were compared between those admitted for coronavirus disease 2019 illness and the rest of the cohort using univariate analysis.
Forty-two patients with a mean age of 7.7 ± 6.7 years were identified. Six were 18 years of age or more with the oldest being 22 years of age. Seventy-six percent were Hispanic. The most common cardiac diagnoses were repaired cyanotic (n = 7, 16.6%) and palliated single ventricle (n = 7, 16.6%) congenital heart disease. Fourteen patients (33.3%) had underlying syndromes or chromosomal anomalies, nine (21%) had chronic pulmonary disease and eight (19%) were immunosuppressed. Nineteen patients (47.6%) reported no symptoms. Sixteen (38.1%) reported only mild symptoms. Six patients (14.3%) were admitted to the hospital for acute coronavirus disease 2019 illness. Noncardiac comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation (p = 0.02), particularly chronic pulmonary disease (p = 0.01) and baseline supplemental oxygen requirement (p = 0.007). None of the single ventricle patients who tested positive required admission.
Hospitalisations for coronavirus disease 2019 were rare among children and young adults with underlying cardiac disease. Extracardiac comorbidities like pulmonary disease were associated with increased risk of hospitalisation while cardiac risk factors were not.
The present study reports the validity of multiple assessment methods for tracking changes in body composition over time and quantifies the influence of unstandardised pre-assessment procedures. Resistance-trained males underwent 6 weeks of structured resistance training alongside a hyperenergetic diet, with four total body composition evaluations. Pre-intervention, body composition was estimated in standardised (i.e. overnight fasted and rested) and unstandardised (i.e. no control over pre-assessment activities) conditions within a single day. The same assessments were repeated post-intervention, and body composition changes were estimated from all possible combinations of pre-intervention and post-intervention data. Assessment methods included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography, three-dimensional optical imaging, single- and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, bioimpedance spectroscopy and multi-component models. Data were analysed using equivalence testing, Bland–Altman analysis, Friedman tests and validity metrics. Most methods demonstrated meaningful errors when unstandardised conditions were present pre- and/or post-intervention, resulting in blunted or exaggerated changes relative to true body composition changes. However, some methods – particularly DXA and select digital anthropometry techniques – were more robust to a lack of standardisation. In standardised conditions, methods exhibiting the highest overall agreement with the four-component model were other multi-component models, select bioimpedance technologies, DXA and select digital anthropometry techniques. Although specific methods varied, the present study broadly demonstrates the importance of controlling and documenting standardisation procedures prior to body composition assessments across distinct assessment technologies, particularly for longitudinal investigations. Additionally, there are meaningful differences in the ability of common methods to track longitudinal body composition changes.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our research focuses on determining rural-urban disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management to improve COPD health outcomes in rural areas. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Several methods exist to distinguish rural from urban areas, but it is not clear which method relates most directly to rural-urban health care disparities. To address this, we compared different measures of rurality to measures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) processes of care among a national sample of veterans. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Retrospective analysis of patients with COPD (2016-2019 by ICD-10 codes) using national Veterans Affairs (VA) data. We assessed rurality by: 1) patient’s residential address, 2) assigned primary care clinic address, and 3) drive time from the patient’s residence to closest primary care clinic. Rurality designations of the residential address and primary care clinic address into urban, rural, and highly rural areas are based on the Rural Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes. The dependent variables were binary outcomes of: 1) documentation of a pulmonary clinic encounter and 2) evidence of spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of COPD. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 6,765,951 veterans, 1,157,002 (17%) had COPD (Table 1). Although approximately 40% of patients with COPD reside in addresses that are rural and highly rural, a large majority are assigned to primary care clinics in urban areas (82.8%) and reside within 30 minutes to the closest primary care clinic (76.7%) (Table 2). Compared to defining rurality based on patient’s residential address or drive time to closest primary care, defining rurality based on the assigned primary care clinic address was associated with a larger disparity in rates of pulmonary encounter. In contrast, the drive time from the patient’s residence to the closest primary care was the strongest predictor of receipt of spirometry (Figure 1 and Table 3). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Estimates of the severity of rural-urban disparities varied based on the definition of rurality used. For two process measures, definitions of rurality based on where the patient received primary care generated more evidence of disparities than definitions based solely on the patient’s residential address.
Over the last year, COVID-19 has emerged as a highly transmissible and lethal infection. As we address this global pandemic, its disproportionate impact on Black, Indigenous, and Latinx communities has served to further magnify the health inequities in access and treatment that persist in our communities. These sobering realities should serve as the impetus for reexamination of the root causes of inequities in our health system. An increased commitment to strategic partnerships between academic and nonacademic health systems, industry, local communities, and policy-makers may serve as the foundation. Here, we examine the impact of the recent COVID-19 pandemic on health care inequities and propose a strategic roadmap for integration of clinical and translational research into our understanding of health inequities.
To describe epidemiologic and genomic characteristics of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large skilled-nursing facility (SNF), and the strategies that controlled transmission.
Design, setting, and participants:
This cohort study was conducted during March 22–May 4, 2020, among all staff and residents at a 780-bed SNF in San Francisco, California.
Contact tracing and symptom screening guided targeted testing of staff and residents; respiratory specimens were also collected through serial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in units with confirmed cases. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to characterize viral isolate lineages and relatedness. Infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions included restricting from work any staff who had close contact with a confirmed case; restricting movement between units; implementing surgical face masking facility-wide; and the use of recommended PPE (ie, isolation gown, gloves, N95 respirator and eye protection) for clinical interactions in units with confirmed cases.
Of 725 staff and residents tested through targeted testing and serial PPSs, 21 (3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive: 16 (76%) staff and 5 (24%) residents. Fifteen cases (71%) were linked to a single unit. Targeted testing identified 17 cases (81%), and PPSs identified 4 cases (19%). Most cases (71%) were identified before IPC interventions could be implemented. WGS was performed on SARS-CoV-2 isolates from 4 staff and 4 residents: 5 were of Santa Clara County lineage and the 3 others were distinct lineages.
Early implementation of targeted testing, serial PPSs, and multimodal IPC interventions limited SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the SNF.