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We investigate two-phase free-surface turbulence (FST) associated with an underlying shear flow under the condition of strong turbulence (SFST) characterized by large Froude (
) and Weber (
) numbers. We perform direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional viscous flows with air and water phases. In contrast to weak FST (WFST) with small free-surface distortions and anisotropic underlying turbulence with distinct inner/outer surface layers, we find SFST to be characterized by large surface deformation and breaking accompanied by substantial air entrainment. The interface inner/outer surface layers disappear under SFST, resulting in nearly isotropic turbulence with
scaling of turbulence kinetic energy near the interface (where
is wavenumber). The SFST air entrainment is observed to occur over a range of scales following a power law of slope
. We derive this using a simple energy argument. The bubble size spectrum in the volume follows this power law (and slope) initially, but deviates from this in time due to a combination of ongoing broad-scale entrainment and bubble fragmentation by turbulence. For varying
, we find that air entrainment is suppressed below critical values
, the entrainment rate scales as
when gravity dominates surface tension in the bubble formation process, while the entrainment rate scales linearly with
when surface tension dominates.
Andrew Harding, in his excursus on ‘legal transplantation’, observed: ‘[W]e do live in a world of legal connectivity in which we share common problems which can only be addressed by a limited range of solutions which are unlikely not to have been tried before’. This prescient remark is apt in the context of the growing importance of the proportionality concept in the Australian public law arena. The proportionality concept attained particular prominence when the High Court of Australia found a freedom of political communication impliedly embedded in the Constitution. It was inevitable that with the establishment of such an implied fundamental constitutional guarantee, the High Court had to craft a principle to enable the saving or invalidation of legislation claimed to be in violation of the implied freedom.
Introduction: Pain is a significant driver of demand in emergency care and 65% of adult patients with trauma also report moderate to severe pain. Inhaled low dose methoxyflurane (MEOF) a rapid-acting patient administered inhalational analgesic was recently approved in Canada for the short-term relief of moderate to severe acute pain associated with trauma or interventional medical procedures in conscious adult patients. This study will generate real-world evidence to complement the global clinical development program through evaluation of the effectiveness of MEOF in Canadian emergency departments. Methods: This is a phase IV, prospective open label, multi-centre study. Approximately 100 adult (≥18 yrs) patients with moderate to severe acute pain (NRS0-10≥4) associated with single system trauma will be enrolled at 5-10 EDs across Canada. Patients will receive a single treatment of up to 2 x 3 mL MEOF (2nd 3 mL to be provided only upon request), self-administered by the patient under medical supervision. Rescue medication will be permitted at any time, if required. Results: Planned Assessments and Outcome Measures: Pain will be assessed using the NRS0-10 at 4 time points: screening/triage, 5 minutes and 20 minutes post-start of administration (STA) of MEOF, and when ready for discharge. Secondary assessments will include the speed of action of analgesia (from STA of MEOF); patient and physician satisfaction with treatment (as assessed through Global Medical Performance (GMP) at 20 minutes post-STA and when ready for discharge); patient and physician fulfilment of pain relief expectations (assessed when ready for discharge); use of rescue medication and treatment-emergent adverse events. Exploratory outcomes will include the time to disposition, time to readiness for discharge and responder analysis. The primary outcome measure will be the change in pain intensity over 20 minutes from the start of administration of MEOF as measured on the NRS0-10. Conclusion: We report on the methodology of a phase IV, prospective open label, multi-centre study, evaluating the use of MEOF for the management of acute traumatic pain in Canadian Emergency Departments.
We estimate the values of bull phenotypic traits, performance measurements, and expected progeny differences (EPDs) over time using bull sale data from an auction in Tennessee from 2006 to 2016. Moreover, we determine how a state partial-cost reimbursement program for bulls with certain EPDs affects bull sale price. Purebred seed stock producers in this region should focus on selling large, fast-growing, mature bulls that produce lighter calves for reduced calving stress. The state cost-share payment did not significantly increase bull prices in most years, meaning this payment was retained by cow-calf producers in most years.
Democratic countries, such as Australia, face the dilemma of preserving public and national security without sacrificing fundamental freedoms. In the context where the rule of law is an underlying assumption of the constitutional framework, Emergency Powers in Australia provides a succinct analysis of the sorts of emergency which have been experienced in Australia and an evaluation of the legal weapons available to the authorities to cope with these emergencies. It analyses the scope of the defence power to determine the constitutionality of federal legislation to deal with wartime crises and the 'war' on terrorism, the extent of the executive power and its relationship to the prerogative, the deployment of the defence forces in aid of the civil power, the statutory frameworks regulating the responses to civil unrest, and natural disasters. The role of the courts when faced with challenges to the invocation of emergency powers is explained and analysed.