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This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lower limb loss (LL) on mental workload by assessing neurocognitive measures in individuals with unilateral transtibial (TT) versus those with transfemoral (TF) LL while dual-task walking under varying cognitive demand.
Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded as participants performed a task of varying cognitive demand while being seated or walking (i.e., varying physical demand).
The findings revealed both groups of participants (TT LL vs. TF LL) exhibited a similar EEG theta synchrony response as either the cognitive or the physical demand increased. Also, while individuals with TT LL maintained similar performance on the cognitive task during seated and walking conditions, those with TF LL exhibited performance decrements (slower response times) on the cognitive task during the walking in comparison to the seated conditions. Furthermore, those with TF LL neither exhibited regional differences in EEG low-alpha power while walking, nor EEG high-alpha desynchrony as a function of cognitive task difficulty while walking. This lack of alpha modulation coincided with no elevation of theta/alpha ratio power as a function of cognitive task difficulty in the TF LL group.
This work suggests that both groups share some common but also different neurocognitive features during dual-task walking. Although all participants were able to recruit neural mechanisms critical for the maintenance of cognitive-motor performance under elevated cognitive or physical demands, the observed differences indicate that walking with a prosthesis, while concurrently performing a cognitive task, imposes additional cognitive demand in individuals with more proximal levels of amputation.
A study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station near Crowley, LA, to evaluate quizalofop at 120 g ai ha−1 applied independently or in a mixture with clomazone, pendimethalin, clomazone plus pendimethalin, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin when PVLO1 rice reached the two- to three-leaf stage. A second application of quizalofop at 120 g ha−1 was applied 21 d after the initial application. At 7 days after treatment (DAT), antagonism of quizalofop occurred when mixed with clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1, clomazone at 334 g ai ha−1 plus pendimethalin at 810 g ai ha−1, or a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin at 334 plus 810 g ai ha−1, respectively, when applied to barnyardgrass. At 7 DAT, a neutral interaction occurred with a mixture of quizalofop plus pendimethalin at 810 g ha−1. These data indicate the antagonism of quizalofop was overcome at 14, 28, and 42 DAT with a neutral interaction for barnyardgrass control, 94% to 98%, with all herbicide mixtures evaluated. A neutral interaction occurred for CL-111, CLXL-745, and red rice control when treated with all the herbicide mixtures evaluated across all evaluation dates. Rice yield decreased when not treated with the initial quizalofop application.
This volume wades into the fertile waters of Augustan Rome and the interrelationship of its literature, monuments, and urban landscape. It focused on a pair of questions: how can we productively probe the myriad points of contact between textual and material evidence to write viable cultural histories of the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, and what are the limits of these kinds of analysis? The studies gathered here range from monumental absences to monumental texts, from canonical Roman authors such as Cicero, Livy, and Ovid to iconic Roman monuments such as the Rostra, Pantheon, and Solar Meridian of Augustus. Each chapter examines what the texts in, on, and about the city tell us about how the ancients thought about, interacted with, and responded to their urban-monumental landscape. The result is a volume whose methodological and heuristic techniques will be compelling and useful for all scholars of the ancient Mediterranean world.
A study was conducted at the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center’s H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station in 2017 and 2018 to evaluate a prepackaged mixture of clomazone plus pendimethalin applied delayed preemergence (DPRE) or POST within an herbicide residual overlay with saflufenacil, clomazone, or quinclorac. POST applications included penoxsulam or halosulfuron in combination with the second residual application. No differences were observed in barnyardgrass control (92% to 98%) at 14 days after treatment (DAT). At 42 DAT, barnyardgrass treated with clomazone plus pendimethalin in combination with either clomazone or quinclorac at either timing was controlled 95% to 96%. However, when saflufenacil was applied PRE, regardless of the POST herbicide or when saflufenacil was applied POST with halosulfuron, barnyardgrass control was reduced to 78% to 81%, compared with 95% to 96% with the control with all other residual combinations. Yellow nutsedge and rice flatsedge control increased when treated with halosulfuron compared with penoxsulam across all evaluation dates. At 28 and 42 DAT, texasweed treated with saflufenacil PRE, regardless of POST applications, was controlled 83% and 87%, respectively, and this was greater control than provided by clomazone or quinclorac applied PRE regardless of POST herbicide program.
The Flat Rocks locality in the Wonthaggi Formation (Strzelecki Group) of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia, hosts fossils of a late Barremian vertebrate fauna that inhabited the ancient rift between Australia and Antarctica. Known from its dentary, Qantassaurus intrepidus Rich and Vickers-Rich, 1999 has been the only dinosaur named from this locality. However, the plethora of vertebrate fossils collected from Flat Rocks suggests that further dinosaurs await discovery. From this locality, we name a new small-bodied ornithopod, Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. from craniodental remains. Five ornithopodan genera are now named from Victoria. Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. is known from five maxillae, from which the first description of jaw growth in an Australian dinosaur is provided. The holotype of Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. is the most complete dinosaur maxilla known from Victoria. Micro-CT imagery of the holotype reveals the complex internal anatomy of the neurovascular tract and antorbital fossa. We confirm that Q. intrepidus is uniquely characterized by a deep foreshortened dentary. Two dentaries originally referred to Q. intrepidus are reassigned to Q. ?intrepidus and a further maxilla is referred to cf. Atlascopcosaurus loadsi Rich and Rich, 1989. A further ornithopod dentary morphotype is identified, more elongate than those of Q. intrepidus and Q. ?intrepidus and with three more tooth positions. This dentary might pertain to Galleonosaurus dorisae n. gen. n. sp. Phylogenetic analysis recovered Cretaceous Victorian and Argentinian nonstyracosternan ornithopods within the exclusively Gondwanan clade Elasmaria. However, the large-bodied taxon Muttaburrasaurus langdoni Bartholomai and Molnar, 1981 is hypothesised as a basal iguanodontian with closer affinities to dryomorphans than to rhabdodontids.
Two field studies were conducted in Louisiana to determine the impact of Nealley’s sprangletop on rough rice yield under multiple environments in 2014, 2015, and 2016. The first study evaluated optimal timings of Nealley’s sprangletop removal for optimizing rough rice yields. The second study evaluated the impact of Nealley’s sprangletop densities on rough rice yield. Nealley’s sprangletop was removed with applications of fenoxaprop at 122 g ai ha–1 at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 d after emergence (DAE). Nealley’s sprangletop removal at 7 and 14 DAE resulted in higher rough rice yields of 7,880 and 6,960 kg ha–1, respectively, when compared with the rice from the season-long Nealley’s sprangletop competition with a 6,040 kg ha-1 yield. Delaying herbicide application from 7 DAE to 42 DAE resulted in a yield loss of 1,740 kg ha–1. Over the 35-d delay in application, rough rice yield loss from Nealley’s sprangletop interference was equivalent to 50 kg ha–1 d–1. Nealley’s sprangletop densities were established at 1, 3, 7, 13, and 26 plants m–2 by transplanting Nealley’s sprangletop when rice reached the one- to two-leaf stage. At Nealley’s sprangletop densities of 1 to 26 plants m–2, rough rice yields were reduced 10 to 270 kg ha–1, compared with the rice from weed-free plots. Based on regression analysis, Nealley’s sprangletop densities of 1, 35, 70, and 450 plants m–2 reduced rough rice yield 0.14%, 5%, 10%, and 50%, respectively.
We describe a new stylonurid eurypterid from the evaporitic potassium-salt deposits of the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Soligorsk Formation in the Pripyat Trough of Belarus. All specimens are assigned to Soligorskopterus tchepeliensis new genus new species, which represents the first formally described eurypterid species from Belarus. The occurrence of well-preserved eurypterids in these unusual evaporite deposits is most likely due to transport from freshwater stream habitats into a hypersaline setting following death. Soligorskopterus tchepeliensis n. gen. n. sp. appears to be intermediate between the traditionally considered parastylonurids and stylonurids and thus extends our understanding of stylonurid evolution in the mid-Paleozoic. Soligorskopterus n. gen. extends the occurrence of Famennian eurypterids into eastern Laurussia and the Stylonuridae into the Upper Devonian, and this taxon could be part of a global eurypterid habitat shift that took place in the Late Devonian.