To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is one of the most problematic weeds in many cropping systems in the midsouthern United States because of its multiple weedy traits and its propensity to evolve resistance to many herbicides with different mechanisms of action. In Arkansas, A. palmeri has evolved metabolic resistance to S-metolachlor, compromising the effectiveness of an important weed management tool. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the differential response of A. palmeri accessions from three states (Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee) to (1) assess the occurrence of resistance to S-metolachlor among A. palmeri populations, (2) evaluate the resistance level in selected accessions and their resistant progeny, (3) and determine the susceptibility of most resistant accessions to other soil-applied herbicides. Seeds were collected from 168 crop fields between 2017 and 2019. One hundred seeds per accession were planted in silt loam soil without herbicide for >20 yr and sprayed with the labeled rate of S-metolachlor (1,120 g ai ha−1). Six accessions (four from Arkansas and two from Mississippi) were classified resistant to S-metolachlor. The effective doses (LD50) to control the parent accessions ranged between 73 and 443 g ha−1, and those of F1 progeny of survivors were 73 to 577 g ha−1. The resistance level was generally greater among progeny of surviving plants than among resistant field populations. The resistant field populations required 2.2 to 7.0 times more S-metolachlor to reduce seedling emergence 50%, while the F1 of survivors needed up to 9.2 times more herbicide to reduce emergence 50% compared with the susceptible standard.
Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most problematic weeds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. The commercialization of herbicide-resistant (HR) rice nearly two decades ago provided an effective tool to manage weedy rice; however, resistance evolution and volunteer HR hybrid rice kept weedy rice at the forefront of rice weed control needs. This research aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of weedy rice infestations, identify production practices that may have contributed to an increase in weedy rice, and determine control strategies that may still be effective on weedy rice across Arkansas and adjacent U.S. Midsouth locales. Two questionnaires, one for rice growers and consultants and one for County Extension agents (CEAs), were distributed through email and physical copies in 2020. Thirty-three respondents returned the rice grower (25) and consultant (8) survey, representing 26 and 7 counties in Arkansas and the Missouri Bootheel area, respectively, as well as four parishes in northeast Louisiana. Eighteen respondents returned the CEA survey. Respondents ranked weedy rice the third most problematic weed in rice, behind Echinochloa spp. and Cyperus spp. The most common infestation levels reported in 78% of fields was less than 12 m−2. Crop rotation (64% growers/consultants, 50% CEAs) and HR rice technology (27% growers/consultants, 50% CEAs) were the top two most-effective methods for weedy rice management, respectively. Tillage and crop rotation practices significantly influenced weedy rice infestation. Rice–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation had the lowest weedy rice infestation compared with rice monoculture and other crop rotation practices. Crop rotation was not practiced on 26% of reported fields, primarily due to poor drainage. The imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant rice technology was still effective (>70% control) in 60% of fields, but quizalofop-resistant rice is needed to control IMI-resistant weedy rice. Overall, weedy rice remains a challenging weed in rice production.
Weedy rice (WR) (Oryza spp.) is the most troublesome weed infesting rice paddies in Brazil. Several changes have occurred in this region regarding crop management, especially WR control based on the Clearfield® (CL) rice production system launched in 2003. This survey’s objective was to evaluate the WR infestation status by assessing the producers’ perception and the management practices used in southern Brazil after 18 yr of CL use in Brazil. Rice consultants and extension agents distributed a questionnaire to 213 producers in the Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Santa Catarina (SC) states in the 2018 to 2019 growing season. In RS, most farms are larger than 150 ha, and farmers have adopted the CL system for more than 2 yr and use minimal or conventional tillage, permanent flooding, clomazone PRE tank-mixed with glyphosate at the rice spiking stage, and crop rotation with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] or pasture. In SC, rice farms are small, averaging from 20 to 30 ha, farmers predominantly plant pre-germinated rice and do not rotate rice with other crops, and roguing is practiced. Comparing both states, the CL system is used in 99.5% and 69.3% of the total surveyed rice areas in RS and SC, respectively. Imidazolinone-resistant WR is present in 68.4% and 26.6% of rice farms in RS and SC, respectively. Rice cultivation in Brazil is currently coexisting with WR with minimal integration of control methods. However, integrated practices can control this weed and are fundamental to the sustainability of systems based on herbicide-resistant rice cultivars.
Seed dormancy allows weedy rice (Oryza sp.) to persist in rice production systems. Weedy and wild relatives of rice (Oryza sativa L.) exhibit different levels of dormancy, which allows them to escape weed management tactics, increasing the potential for flowering synchronization, and therefore gene flow, between weedy Oryza sp. and cultivated rice. In this study, we determined the genetic diversity and divergence of representative dormant and nondormant weedy Oryza sp. groups from Arkansas. Twenty-five simple sequence repeat markers closely associated with seed dormancy were used. Four populations were included: dormant blackhull, dormant strawhull, nondormant blackhull, and nondormant strawhull. The overall gene diversity was 0.355, indicating considerable genetic variation among populations in these dormancy-related loci. Gene diversity among blackhull populations (0.398) was higher than among strawhull populations (0.245). Higher genetic diversity was also observed within and among dormant populations than in nondormant populations. Cluster analysis of 16 accessions, based on Nei’s genetic distance, showed four clusters. Clusters I, III, and IV consisted of only blackhull accessions, whereas Cluster II comprised only strawhull accessions. These four clusters did not separate cleanly into dormant and nondormant populations, indicating that not all markers were tightly linked to dormancy. The strawhull groups were most distant from blackhull weedy Oryza sp. groups. These data indicate complex genetic control of the dormancy trait, as dormant individuals exhibited higher genetic diversity than nondormant individuals. Seed-dormancy trait contributes to population structure of weedy Oryza sp., but this influence is less than that of hull color. Markers unique to the dormant populations are good candidates for follow-up studies on the control of seed dormancy in weedy Oryza sp.
The widespread occurrence of Palmer amaranth resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibitors and/or glyphosate led to the increased use of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides. This research aimed to: (1) evaluate the efficacy of foliar-applied fomesafen to Palmer amaranth, (2) evaluate cross-resistance to foliar PPO inhibitors and efficacy of foliar herbicides with different mechanisms of action, (3) survey the occurrence of the PPO Gly-210 deletion mutation among PPO inhibitor–resistant Palmer amaranth, (4) identify other PPO target-site mutations in resistant individuals, and (5) determine the resistance level in resistant accessions with or without the PPO Gly-210 deletion. Seedlings were sprayed with fomesafen (263 gaiha−1), dicamba (280 gaiha−1), glyphosate (870 gaiha−1), glufosinate (549 g ai ha−1), and trifloxysulfuron (7.84 gaiha−1). Selected fomesafen-resistant accessions were sprayed with other foliar-applied PPO herbicides. Mortality and injury were evaluated 21 d after treatment (DAT). The PPX2L gene of resistant and susceptible plants from a selected accession was sequenced. The majority (70%) of samples from putative PPO-resistant populations in 2015 were confirmed resistant to foliar-applied fomesafen. The efficacy of other foliar PPO herbicides on fomesafen-resistant accessions was saflufenacil>acifluorfen=flumioxazin>carfentrazone=lactofen>pyraflufen-ethyl>fomesafen>fluthiacet-methyl. With small seedlings, cross-resistance occurred with all foliar-applied PPO herbicides except saflufenacil (i.e., 25% with acifluorfen, 42% with flumioxazin). Thirty-two percent of PPO-resistant accessions were multiple resistant to glyphosate and trifloxysulfuron. Resistance to PPO herbicides in Palmer amaranth occurred in at least 13 counties in Arkansas. Of 316 fomesafen survivors tested, 55% carried the PPO Gly-210 deletion reported previously in common waterhemp. The PPO gene (PPX2L) in one accession (15CRI-B), which did not encode the Gly-210 deletion, encoded an Arg-128-Gly substitution. The 50% growth reduction values for fomesafen in accessions with Gly-210 deletion were 8- to 15-fold higher than that of a susceptible population, and 3- to 10-fold higher in accessions without the Gly-210 deletion.
Studies were conducted at the Main Agricultural Experiment Station in Fayetteville and the Vegetable Substation in Kibler, Arkansas, in 1992 and 1993 on the same plots to evaluate weed suppression by winter cover crops alone or in combination with reduced herbicide rates in no-till sweet corn and to evaluate cover crop effects on growth and yield of sweet corn. Plots seeded to rye plus hairy vetch, rye, or wheat had at least 50% fewer early season weeds than hairy vetch alone or no cover crop. None of the cover crops reduced population of yellow nutsedge. Without herbicides, hairy vetch did not suppress weeds 8 wk after cover crop desiccation. Half rates of atrazine and metolachlor (1.1 + 1.1 kg ai ha−1) reduced total weed density more effectively in no cover crop than in hairy vetch. Half rates of atrazine and metolachlor controlled redroot pigweed, Palmer amaranth, and goosegrass regardless of cover crop. Full rates of atrazine and metolachlor (2.2 + 2.2 kg ai ha−1) were needed to control large crabgrass in hairy vetch. Control of yellow nutsedge in hairy vetch was marginal even with full herbicide rates. Yellow nutsedge population increased and control with herbicides declined the second year, particularly with half rates of atrazine and metolachlor. All cover crops except hairy vetch alone reduced emergence, height, and yield of sweet corn. Sweet corn yields from half rates of atrazine and metolachlor equalled the full rates regardless of cover crops.
Studies were conducted at the Vegetable Substation in Kibler, AR, in 1992 and 1993, in the same plots, to evaluate weed suppression by spring-seeded cover crops and to determine the effects of cover crop and imazethapyr on no-till southern pea. A plot without cover, conventionally tilled before planting southern pea, served as control. Weed control treatments, applied as subplots in each cover crop, included a weedy check, handweeded check, and half and full rates of imazethapyr (0.035 and 0.07 kg/ha) followed by sethoxydim (0.22 kg/ha). Biomass of Palmer amaranth 6 WAR without herbicides, was less in Italian ryegrass and sorghum-sudangrass residues than in oat residue and no cover crop. Over the years, Palmer amaranth density increased 333% without cover crops and 28% with cover crops. Rice flatsedge density increased four to five times in oat and sorghum-sudangrass residues but remained the same in Italian ryegrass residue. In general, Italian ryegrass residue suppressed the most weeds. Oat residue was least suppressive. Italian ryegrass and sorghum-sudangrass also reduced southern pea stand. Regardless of cover crop and year, half and full rates of imazethapyr followed by sethoxydim equally reduced density of Palmer amaranth, goosegrass, large crabgrass, southwestern cupgrass, and rice flatsedge compared with the untreated check. Residual control of Palmer amaranth by imazethapyr was higher at the full rate than the reduced rate, regardless of cover crop. Half rate of imazethapyr followed by sethoxydim controlled 94 to 100% of Palmer amaranth, rice flatsedge, large crabgrass, and southwestern cupgrass late in the season, regardless of cover crop in 1992 and 1993. Southern pea yield in untilled plots with cover crops was two to three times lower than yield in plots with preplant tillage and no cover crops mostly because of reduction in crop stand in the presence of cover crops.
Concentrations of DIBOA [2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-(2H)-benzoxazine-3-one] and BOA [2-(3H)-benzoxazolinone], described previously as major allelochemicals in Secale cereale (rye), were determined in eight field-grown cultivars, harvested at booting, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Allelochemicals were also quantified in greenhouse-grown cultivar ‘Bates’ harvested 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after planting (DAP). The total production of DIBOA and BOA from field-grown S. cereale ranged from 137 to 1,469 μg g−1 dry tissue among the eight cultivars. ‘Bonel’ cultivar had the highest hydroxamic acid (HA) content and ‘Pastar’ the lowest. Bonel also showed the highest activity on Eleusine indica (goosegrass) and Pastar the least, in culture plate bioassays using aqueous extracts. HA content in shoot tissue varied with S. cereale maturity. The greatest level of HA in greenhouse-grown Bates was obtained 60 DAP compared to 30 DAP.
Italian ryegrass is a major weed problem in wheat production worldwide. Field studies were conducted at Fayetteville, AR, to assess morphological characteristics of ryegrass accessions from Arkansas and differences among other Lolium spp.: Italian, rigid, poison, and perennial ryegrass. Plant height, plant growth habit, plant stem color, and node color were recorded every 2 wk until maturity. The number of tillers per plant, spikes per plant, and seeds per plant were recorded at maturity. All ryegrass accessions from Arkansas were identified as Italian ryegrass, which had erect to prostrate growth habit, green to red stem color, green to red nodes, glume (10 mm) shorter than spikelet (19 mm), and medium seed size (5 to 7 mm) with 1 to 3 mm awns. However, significant variability in morphological characteristics was found among Arkansas ryegrass accessions. When Lolium species at the seedling stage (1- to 2-wk-old plants) were compared, poison ryegrass was characterized as having a large main-stem diameter and wide droopy leaves, whereas perennial ryegrass exhibited a short and a very narrow leaf blade. These two can be distinguished from Italian and rigid ryegrass, which have leaf blades wider than perennial ryegrass but narrower than poison ryegrass. Italian and rigid ryegrass are difficult to distinguish at the seedling stage but are distinct at the reproductive stage. At maturity, Italian ryegrass and poison ryegrass seeds are awned, but perennial and rigid ryegrass seeds are awnless. Poison ryegrass awns were at least 4-fold longer than Italian ryegrass awns. Perennial ryegrass flowered 3 wk later than the other species. Poison ryegrass glumes were longer than the spikelets, whereas Italian ryegrass glumes were shorter than the spikelets. Morphological traits indicate that some Italian ryegrass populations are potentially more competitive and more fecund than others.
As cases of resistance to herbicides escalate worldwide, there is increasing
demand from growers to test for weed resistance and learn how to manage it.
Scientists have developed resistance-testing protocols for numerous
herbicides and weed species. Growers need immediate answers and scientists
are faced with the daunting task of testing an increasingly large number of
samples across a variety of species and herbicides. Quick tests have been,
and continue to be, developed to address this need, although classical tests
are still the norm. Newer methods involve molecular techniques. Whereas the
classical whole-plant assay tests for resistance regardless of the
mechanism, many quick tests are limited by specificity to an herbicide, mode
of action, or mechanism of resistance. Advancing knowledge in weed biology
and genomics allows for refinements in sampling and testing protocols. Thus,
approaches in resistance testing continue to diversify, which can confound
the less experienced. We aim to help weed science practitioners resolve
questions pertaining to the testing of herbicide resistance, starting with
field surveys and sampling methods, herbicide screening methods, data
analysis, and, finally, interpretation. More specifically, this article
discusses approaches for sampling plants for resistance confirmation assays,
provides brief overviews on the biological and statistical basis for
designing and analyzing dose–response tests, and discusses alternative
procedures for rapid resistance confirmation, including molecular-based
assays. Resistance confirmation procedures often need to be slightly
modified to suit a specific situation; thus, the general requirements as
well as pros and cons of quick assays and DNA-based assays are contrasted.
Ultimately, weed resistance testing research, as well as resistance
management decisions arising from research, needs to be practical, feasible,
and grounded in science-based methods.
Soybean is a major crop cultivated in Brazil, and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides are widely used to control weeds in this crop. The continuous use of these ALS-inhibiting herbicides has led to the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Greater beggarticks is a polyploid species and one of the most troublesome weeds in soybean production since the discovery of ALS-resistant biotypes in 1996. To confirm and characterize the resistance of greater beggarticks to ALS inhibitors, whole-plant bioassays and enzyme experiments were conducted. To investigate the molecular basis of resistance in greater beggarticks the ALS gene was sequenced and compared between susceptible and resistant biotypes. Our results confirmed that greater beggarticks is resistant to ALS inhibitors and also indicated it possesses at least three isoforms of the ALS gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among the isoforms and between the biotypes indicated that a single point mutation, G–T, in one ALS isoform from the resistant biotype resulted in an amino acid substitution, Trp574Leu. Two additional substitutions were observed, Phe116Leu and Phe149Ser, in a second isoform of the resistant biotype, which were not yet reported in any other herbicide-resistant ALS gene; thus, their role in conferring herbicide resistance is not yet ascertained. This is the first report of ALS mutations in an important, herbicide-resistant weed species from Brazil.
Much of agriculture-related research today involves weed resistance to herbicides. Resistance evolution is perhaps the strongest driver for the quest for new herbicide targets, novel weed intervention technologies, and the promotion of best management practices for sustainable crop production (Burgos et al., 2006; Norsworthy et al. 2012; Vencill et al. 2012). To date, 222 weedy species collectively have evolved resistance to 150 herbicides representing 21 sites of action (Heap 2014). For decades, scientists have developed numerous protocols for resistance confirmation using seeds, different plant parts, or whole plants. These have been reviewed by Beckie et al. (2000) and Burgos et al. (2013). We draw from these and other sources to present general guidelines for resistance confirmation that students and new researchers can use in planning their experiments. The most immediate questions that stakeholders seek to answer with resistance bioassays include:
Chemical options for weed control in commercial cowpea production are limited. Repeated long-term use of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor, imazethapyr, has resulted in selection for ALS-resistant populations of Palmer amaranth. Experiments were conducted at Bixby, OK, and Kibler, AR, from 2001 to 2003 to evaluate the tolerance of cowpea cultivars and advanced breeding lines to fomesafen, a potential alternative for controlling ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth and other problematic broadleaf weeds. Eight commercial cultivars and 42 advanced breeding lines were entered in the preliminary screening, using 0.84 kg/ha fomesafen. Six breeding lines were selected for the first replicated trial and three (00-582, 00-584, and 00-609) were advanced to across-location experiments. Fomesafen doses of 0, 0.17, 0.34, and 0.67 kg/ha were tested across locations. ‘Early Scarlet’ was used as commercial standard. The advanced lines had equal or higher yield potential (1,182 to 1,936 kg/ha) than Early Scarlet (1,108 kg/ha) across locations. Of the cultivars tested, line 00-609 was the best yielder, whereas 00-584 had the highest tolerance to fomesafen. At the commercial fomesafen rate of 0.34 kg/ha, 00-584 had higher yield (974 and 1,735 kg/ha, respectively, at Bixby, OK, and Kibler, AR) than the nontreated, weed-free, Early Scarlet. Thus, fomesafen can be used on the tolerant line, 00-584, without reducing yield potential relative to Early Scarlet.
Weed resistance to herbicides has dramatically increased in the past decade; consequently, research dedicated to understanding the mechanisms of herbicide resistance has also increased. Several symposia in the past decade have addressed various aspects of resistance to herbicides in weeds or crops. Weedy plants acquire resistance to a herbicide by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) detoxification of the herbicide, (2) preventing the herbicide from reaching the target site, or (3) alteration of the target site. Thus far, the most prevalent mechanism is target-site mutation. Advances in molecular biology techniques, particularly in the area of deoxyribonucleic acid analysis, have provided opportunities for weed science researchers to study the molecular basis for herbicide resistance. Numerous papers presented at weed science or related forums have discussed genetic modifications at the site of action as the most common mechanism conferring resistance. Mutations at the herbicide-binding site result in conformational changes that inhibit herbicide binding. This mechanism underlies resistance to triazines, aryloxyphenoxypropionates, cyclohexanediones, and acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides. Resistance is generally caused by single or multiple mutations at the herbicide-binding site.
Eighteen Lolium spp. (ryegrass) accessions collected in 1998 from several locations in Arkansas were tested for resistance (R) to diclofop in both seed and whole-plant response bioassays. Eleven accessions were L. temulentum and eight were L. perenne. Fourteen of eighteen accessions were confirmed resistant to diclofop in whole-plant assay. Three of the susceptible (S) accessions were L. temulentum. The GR50 (diclofop concentration that reduced shoot or root length by 50%) R/S ratios based on whole-plant response were greater than those of the seed bioassay in all test populations, indicating that the whole-plant bioassay was more sensitive than the seed bioassay for determining diclofop resistance in Lolium spp. The most resistant (#18) and most susceptible (#3) accessions of L. temulentum were used for multiple resistance and enzyme assay experiments. Based on whole-plant bioassay, accession #18 was 411 times more resistant to diclofop than the susceptible accession #3. Accession #18 exhibited cross-resistance to fenoxaprop and multiple resistance to chlorsulfuron applied preemergence or postemergence. Resistance to other herbicide families was not observed. Resistance to chlorsulfuron was not detected in the seed bioassay. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) from accession #18 was 833 times more resistant to diclofop and 10 times more resistant to sethoxydim than ACCase from accession #3. Cross-resistance to sethoxydim was not observed at the whole-plant level. Resistance to diclofop among Lolium spp. from Arkansas may be due to an alteration in the target enzyme, ACCase.
The commercialization of imazethapyr-resistant (Clearfield™, CL) rice in the southern United States has raised serious concerns about gene flow to red rice, producing imazethapyr-resistant red rice populations. Our objectives were to determine the impact of planting date, CL cultivars, and red rice biotypes on outcrossing rate; and to investigate the relative contribution of flowering time of CL rice and red rice biotypes, together with air temperature and relative humidity (RH), on outcrossing rate. Field experiments were conducted at Stuttgart, Rohwer, and Kibler, AR, from 2005 to 2007, at three or four planting times from mid-April to late May. ‘CL161’ (inbred cultivar) and ‘CLXL8’ (hybrid) rice were planted in nine-row plots, with red rice planted in the middle row. Twelve red rice biotypes were used. The flowering of red rice and CL rice, air temperature, and RH were recorded. Red rice seeds were collected at maturity. To estimate outcrossing rate, resistance to imazethapyr was evaluated in subsequent years and confirmed using rice microsatellite markers. CLXL8 rice flowered 2 to 4 d earlier than CL161 rice, and flowering was completed within 1 wk in all plantings. The flowering duration of most red rice biotypes ranged from 4 to 17 d. Flowering synchrony of red rice biotypes and CL rice ranged from 0 to 100% at different plantings. In general, CLXL8 had greater flowering overlap and higher outcrossing rate with red rice than did CL161 rice. The outcrossing rate of red rice biotypes ranged from 0 to 0.21% and 0 to 1.26% with CL161 and CLXL8 rice, respectively. The outcrossing rate differed within each planting date (P < 0.05). Outcrossing was generally lower in mid-May and late May than in mid-April and late April planting times. Flowering synchrony and outcrossing rate were not correlated (r2 < 0.01). Outcrossing with CL161 was primarily influenced by red rice biotype. A minimum air temperature of > 24 C in the evening also favors outcrossing with CL161. With CLXL8 rice, outcrossing was most affected by RH. When RH was < 54%, outcrossing was less (0.12%) than when RH was ≥ 54% (0.38%). With CLXL8 rice, a minimum RH of ≥ 54%, from mid-morning to noon, increased outcrossing with red rice. To fully understand the interaction effects of these factors on outcrossing with red rice, controlled experiments are needed.
Cultivated rice yield losses due to red rice infestation vary by cultivar, red rice density, and duration of interference. The competition effects of red rice could be influenced further by emergence characteristics, red rice biotype, and planting time of cultivated rice. We aimed to characterize the emergence of red rice biotypes at different planting dates and evaluate the effect of red rice biotype, rice cultivar, and planting date on cultivated rice yield loss. Field experiments were conducted at the Southeast Research and Extension Center, Rohwer, AR, and at the Arkansas Rice Research and Extension Center, Stuttgart, AR, in the summer of 2005 and 2006. The experimental design was a split-split plot with three or four replications. Planting time, ClearfieldTM (CL) rice cultivar, and red rice biotype were the main plot, subplot, and sub-subplot factors, respectively. There were three planting times from mid-April to mid-May at 2-wk intervals. CL rice cultivars, CL161 and hybrid CLXL8, and 12 red rice biotypes were planted. The emergence rate and coefficient of uniformity of germination differed among some red rice biotypes within a planting time. Planting date affected the emergence characteristics of red rice biotypes. The mean emergence rate of red rice was 0.043 d−1 in the mid-April planting and 0.058 d−1 in the late April planting. For the mid-April planting, 50% of red rice biotypes emerged in 20 ± 2 d compared with 15 ± 2 d for CL rice cultivars. Yield losses due to red rice biotypes generally increased in later planting dates, up to 49%. Yield losses due to interference from red rice biotypes ranged from 14 to 45% and 6 to 35% in CL161 and CLXL8, respectively. Cultivated rice became less competitive with red rice in later plantings, resulting in higher yield losses.
Arkansas has been the leading state in rice production in the United States for many years. Barnyardgrass is the dominant weed in Arkansas rice. Propanil was the first highly effective herbicide for weed control in rice and has been used in Arkansas since 1959 as the primary herbicide for rice weed control. By 1989, its continual use led to the development of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass, which had spread to 16 of the 38 rice-producing counties in Arkansas by 1992. Arkansas rice growers are dependent on herbicides for the control of weeds in this drill-seeded crop. The residual herbicides thiobencarb, molinate, and pendimethalin mixed with propanil applied early postemergence improved control of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass. But it was quinclorac, introduced in 1992, that became the real replacement treatment for propanil-resistant barnyardgrass. Then in 1999, a barnyardgrass biotype with resistance to both quinclorac and propanil was confirmed in Craighead County, Arkansas. Additionally, problems with quinclorac drift to other crops, especially tomato, led to restrictions on application of quinclorac in Arkansas by 1994. Fortunately, alternative herbicides for barnyardgrass control were developed, and clomazone was introduced in 2000. Clomazone is currently the standard herbicide for annual grasses in rice, including barnyardgrass. Herbicides recently developed for rice allow a broad range of options for a resistance management program, based on rotational and sequential herbicide applications. These include fenoxaprop and cyhalofop (both acetyl-CoA carboxylase [ACCase] inhibitors), bispyribac and penoxsulam (acetolactate synthase [ALS] inhibitors), and imazethapyr and imazamox (also ALS inhibitors for imidazolinone-resistant rice). From a global standpoint, there is considerable evidence that barnyardgrass has the propensity to develop resistance to most of these herbicide groups. Therefore, efforts to manage and monitor for herbicide resistance in this species need to be diligently continued. Research on nonchemical options is in progress utilizing weed-suppressive rice breeding lines to control barnyardgrass.
Diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass is a major weed problem in wheat production. This study aimed to determine the resistance pattern of diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass accessions from the southern United States to the latest commercialized herbicides for wheat production, pinoxaden and mesosulfuron, and to other acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors. Twenty-nine of 36 accessions were resistant to the commercial dose of diclofop. The majority (80%) of diclofop-resistant accessions were also resistant to clodinafop. Of 25 diclofop-resistant accessions, 5 were resistant to pinoxaden. All accessions tested were susceptible to the commercial dose of clethodim and sethoxydim. The cross-resistance pattern of diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass to other ACCase inhibitors was 20% for pinoxaden and none with clethodim or sethoxydim. One accession was resistant to mesosulfuron but not to diclofop. This mesosulfuron-resistant accession was cross-resistant to sulfometuron but not to imazamox. All diclofop-resistant accessions tested were susceptible to ALS inhibitors, mesosulfuron, sulfometuron, and imazamox. Therefore, diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass in Arkansas can be controlled with imazamox (in Clearfield wheat) and can mostly be controlled with mesosulfuron and pinoxaden. It could also be controlled by other selective grass herbicides in broadleaf crops.
Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern United States. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a germplasm source for breeding and for reduced-input systems in the United States, but little is known about its outcrossing potential with U.S. weedy red rice biotypes. In a 2-yr study, simple sequence repeat marker analysis was used to show that blackhull (BH) red rice (PI 653424) outcrossing to four, late-maturing indica cultivars averaged 0.0086% and ranged from 0.002% for ‘TeQing’ to 0.0173% for ‘4484’ (PI 615022). Rates of outcrossing to a tropical japonica cultivar standard, ‘Kaybonnet’ (0.032%), were substantially greater than for the indica cultivars. These differences in outcrossing were due largely to synchronization of flowering times between rice and red rice, with Kaybonnet and TeQing exhibiting the greatest and least synchronization, respectively. Outcrossing rates also may have been affected by rice–red rice flower density differences within the rice plots. Outcrossing from cultivated rice to the red rice (as pollen recipient), which was taller than all rice cultivars, was undetectable in these studies, and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and rainfall) were not strongly correlated with the outcrossing rates observed. Grain yields of the original BH red rice line were greatest in the Kaybonnet plots, demonstrating that the indica cultivars were superior competitors against this weed. Collectively, these results suggest that red rice biotypes that flower synchronously with rice cultivars are a potential source of pollen for outcrossing and gene flow in rice fields in the southern United States.