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Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to four weeks after maturity at multiple sites spread across eleven states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic U.S. From soybean maturity to four weeks after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased as the states moved further north. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1 to 70%. That range had shifted to 5 to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 days after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output at during certain years.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.
The evidence of funerary archaeology, historical sources and poetry has been used to define a ‘heroic warrior ethos’ across Northern Europe during the first millennium AD. In northern Britain, burials of later prehistoric to early medieval date are limited, as are historical and literary sources. There is, however, a rich sculptural corpus, to which a newly discovered monolith with an image of a warrior can now be added. Comparative analysis reveals a materialisation of a martial ideology on carved stone monuments, probably associated with elite cemeteries, highlighting a regional expression of the warrior ethos in late Roman and post-Roman Europe.
Personal names appear in almost all texts about early medieval Insular societies, but it is more common to study the people behind the names or consider individual names on a case-by-case basis than to consider naming practices more broadly. For early medieval Scotland, we have literary sources such as saints’ Lives and poetry, and histories, most notably Bede's ‘Ecclesiastical History’, but these do not provide names covering the whole period. The genealogies of important kindreds of the Gaelic world provide a massive corpus of names, with an often impressive degree of coverage for Ireland, less for Scotland, and evidence for relationships between people. However, as these genealogies do not survive in early medieval manuscripts, they were also subject to later manipulation and fabrication. In addition, they have a major drawback: the genealogical genre tries to provide every generation of a person's ancestry, so they tend to state that individuals were the sons or fathers of others, usually either in the form ‘X son of Y son of Z’, or ‘these are the sons of X, that is Y and Z’. As a result, apart from an individual's own first name, these sources do not allow us to understand well how people were actually called by contemporaries. In medieval societies, where ancestry was significant, people could be identified not only by their parentage, but also by their grandparents or other ancestors, their kindred, or by a place, practices hidden by the form of the genealogical genre.
Such practices are, however, visible in the Gaelic chronicles, which contain the names of hundreds of individuals each century, with names comprising a substantial proportion of these texts overall. While the form of the personal names is affected by the nature of the event and how the annalist wanted to present it, as well as the overall tendency towards brevity in this genre, the chronicles display considerable variety in the form of personal names. The result is that these chronicles are major sources for personal names and naming practices in Scotland and Ireland in the period before A.D. 1100, before the growth of administrative documents, such as charters, produces a transformation in the evidence available for study.
Significant experimental evidence supports fat as a taste modality; however, the associated peripheral mechanisms are not well established. Several candidate taste receptors have been identified, but their expression pattern and potential functions in human fungiform papillae remain unknown. The aim of this study is to identify the fat taste candidate receptors and ion channels that were expressed in human fungiform taste buds and their association with oral sensory of fatty acids. For the expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) from RNA extracted from human fungiform papillae samples was used to determine the expression of candidate fatty acid receptors and ion channels. Western blotting analysis was used to confirm the presence of the proteins in fungiform papillae. Immunohistochemistry analysis was used to localise the expressed receptors or ion channels in the taste buds of fungiform papillae. The correlation study was analysed between the expression level of the expressed fat taste receptors or ion channels indicated by qRT-PCR and fat taste threshold, liking of fatty food and fat intake. As a result, qRT-PCR and western blotting indicated that mRNA and protein of CD36, FFAR4, FFAR2, GPR84 and delayed rectifying K+ channels are expressed in human fungiform taste buds. The expression level of CD36 was associated with the liking difference score (R −0·567, β=−0·04, P=0·04) between high-fat and low-fat food and FFAR2 was associated with total fat intake (ρ=−0·535, β=−0·01, P=0·003) and saturated fat intake (ρ=−0·641, β=−0·02, P=0·008).
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.
We study the chromatic number of the curve graph of a surface. We show that the chromatic number grows like
for the graph of separating curves on a surface of Euler characteristic
. We also show that the graph of curves that represent a fixed nonzero homology class is uniquely
denotes its clique number. Together, these results lead to the best known bounds on the chromatic number of the curve graph. We also study variations for arc graphs and obtain exact results for surfaces of low complexity. Our investigation leads to connections with Kneser graphs, the Johnson homomorphism, and hyperbolic geometry.
Engagement systems encode the relative accessibility of an entity or state of affairs to the speaker and addressee, and are thus underpinned by our social cognitive capacities. In our first foray into engagement (Part 1), we focused on specialised semantic contrasts as found in entity-level deictic systems, tailored to the primal scenario for establishing joint attention. This second paper broadens out to an exploration of engagement at the level of events and even metapropositions, and comments on how such systems may evolve. The languages Andoke and Kogi demonstrate what a canonical system of engagement with clausal scope looks like, symmetrically assigning ‘knowing’ and ‘unknowing’ values to speaker and addressee. Engagement is also found cross-cutting other epistemic categories such as evidentiality, for example where a complex assessment of relative speaker and addressee awareness concerns the source of information rather than the proposition itself. Data from the language Abui reveal that one way in which engagement systems can develop is by upscoping demonstratives, which normally denote entities, to apply at the level of events. We conclude by stressing the need for studies that focus on what difference it makes, in terms of communicative behaviour, for intersubjective coordination to be managed by engagement systems as opposed to other, non-grammaticalised means.
Human language offers rich ways to track, compare, and engage the attentional and epistemic states of interlocutors. While this task is central to everyday communication, our knowledge of the cross-linguistic grammatical means that target such intersubjective coordination has remained basic. In two serialised papers, we introduce the term ‘engagement’ to refer to grammaticalised means for encoding the relative mental directedness of speaker and addressee towards an entity or state of affairs, and describe examples of engagement systems from around the world. Engagement systems express the speaker’s assumptions about the degree to which their attention or knowledge is shared (or not shared) by the addressee. Engagement categories can operate at the level of entities in the here-and-now (deixis), in the unfolding discourse (definiteness vs indefiniteness), entire event-depicting propositions (through markers with clausal scope), and even metapropositions (potentially scoping over evidential values). In this first paper, we introduce engagement and situate it with respect to existing work on intersubjectivity in language. We then explore the key role of deixis in coordinating attention and expressing engagement, moving through increasingly intercognitive deictic systems from those that focus on the the location of the speaker, to those that encode the attentional state of the addressee.
ABSTRACT.Distance from the threat, always the prime advantage of an island situation, was no longer sufficient in 1941 to save the U.S. from involvement in a world war, but it still provided the luxury of the strategic initiative, and the ability to develop campaigns when and where it suited the allies.
RÉSUMÉ.Leur distance face à la menace, qui constitue depuis toujours le principal avantage d'une situation insulaire, ne suffit plus en 1941 à empêcher les États-Unis de s'engager dans un conflit mondial. Elle leur offrit cependant toujours le luxe de l'initiative stratégique et la capacité de développer des campagnes aux endroits et au moment qui convenaient le mieux aux alliés.
The United States of America is a land power – actually, to be more accurate, a continental power – that has had its development and commerce shaped fundamentally by water even if most Americans were unaware of this fact. There was, however, a small group of political and military leaders who understood both the importance of the sea and its flexibility as a medium of power. These two factors – the importance of water and a general adaptability of the U.S. military services that fought on and near it – are major considerations in explaining U.S. strategies and experiences in the Second World War.
Throughout American history, natural bodies of water had been highways for commerce and migration, and, to a much lesser extent, defensive barriers. That changed on 7 December 1941. While maritime factors had led the United States to war against France in the undeclared Quasi War of the 1790s, against Great Britain in the War of 1812, and against Germany in the First World War, the Second World War was different. The Imperial Japanese Navy had shown that weapons technology now made it possible for foreign powers to threaten the security of the American homeland.(The last foreign power to do so – the United Kingdom in 1812 – had bases in Canada that negated the barrier of the Atlantic even before the war started.) It was also within the resources of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan to damage in a systematic way the commerce of the United States.
When the United States entered the war, it faced a strategic situation that several peacetime decisions had shaped.
Nen (ISO 639–3 code: nqn) is the easternmost language of the Yam (Morehead-Maro) family of Southern New Guinea. This family is one of over forty maximal genetic groupings in New Guinea, and is currently not relatable to any other language family in New Guinea or elsewhere. As with other aspects of their grammar, the phonology of the Morehead-Maro languages differs significantly from those of other Papuan languages. The phonology of Nen is broadly similar to that of other members of the family, except that (like most other members of the Nambu branch, of which it is a member) it lacks the velar nasal phoneme found in more westerly languages, and it has a smaller fricative inventory: other languages of the family include /ɸ ɣ θ/, all absent from Nen.
Oxyspirura petrowi is a heteroxenous parasitic nematode that has been reported in high prevalences from birds in the Order Galliformes experiencing population declines in the USA. There is a paucity of information regarding the natural history O. petrowi, including the life cycle and effects of infection on wild bird populations. In order to study the life cycle of this parasite, we collected plains lubber grasshoppers (Brachystola magna) from a field location in Mitchell County, Texas. We found third-stage larvae (L3) in 37.9% (66/174) B. magna. We determined that they were O. petrowi through morphological comparison of L3 from experimentally infected Acheta domesticus and by sequence analysis. Then, we showed that B. magna are a potential intermediate hosts for O. petrowi infections in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) in a laboratory setting by experimental infection. We first detected shedding of eggs in feces using a fecal float technique 52 days post infection. In addition, we recovered 87 O. petrowi from experimentally infected northern bobwhites. Although we detected shedding in feces, recovery of eggs was low (>5 eggs/g). Future work is needed to understand shedding routes and shedding patterns of northern bobwhites infected with O. petrowi.