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This handbook marks the transformation of the topic of literacy from the narrower concerns with learning to read and write to an interdisciplinary enquiry into the various roles of writing and reading in the full range of social and psychological functions in both modern and developing societies. It does so by exploring the nature and development of writing systems, the relations between speech and writing, the history of the social uses of writing, the evolution of conventions of reading, the social and developmental dimensions of acquiring literate competencies, and, more generally, the conceptual and cognitive dimensions of literacy as a set of social practices. Contributors to the volume are leading scholars drawn from such disciplines as linguistics, literature, history, anthropology, psychology, the neurosciences, cultural psychology, and education.
Objectives: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complex condition, which is variously influenced by physical, emotional, societal, and relationship factors. ED has serious implications for the quality of life (QoL) enjoyed by an affected male and his partner. It is very important, therefore, to understand the impact of ED on the QoL of those affected by it. Our objective was to determine if the eight-question Patient Reported Erectile Function Assessment (PREFA) could act as an independent, comprehensive disease-specific instrument in the assessment of QoL as it is impacted by ED.
Methods: During the development and validation of the Erectile Function–Visual Analog Scale (EF-VAS) (14), a new ED-specific preference-based instrument, a series of questions were included at the beginning of the assessment that would act as a way to encourage respondents to focus on their own experience with ED. Upon analysis of the EF-VAS data, it became apparent that the eight-question “warm up” section might act as a stand-alone assessment. Accordingly, the eight questions were named PREFA, and a validation analysis was undertaken to determine their consistency, feasibility, reliability, validity, and responsiveness.
Results: The PREFA questionnaire was found to be feasible and simple to complete, reliable, and valid, with excellent responsiveness. Overall, the PREFA has demonstrated that it can perform as a stand alone, validated assessment of the impact of ED on QoL, assessing areas of QoL not previously captured in existing instruments.
Conclusions: The PREFA is suitable for use in clinical and research settings as a disease-specific QoL assessment tool.
Children's ability to distinguish between the text, WHAT WAS SAID, and
the intentional structure, WHAT WAS MEANT, was interrogated by means
of verbatim and paraphrase questions in two types of discourse,
narratives and nursery rhymes. Three- to seven-year-olds participated
(n = 119, mean age 5·1). There was an interaction between the type of
discourse and the younger children's ability to separate wording from
intentional structure. In the narrative form they had difficulty rejecting
true paraphrases when asked to focus on wording, while in the nursery
rhyme form the difficulty was accepting a true paraphrase when asked to
focus on intention.
The present study investigated the universality of the early development
of young children's understanding and representation of false beliefs,
and specifically, the effect of language on Chinese-speaking children's
performance in false belief tasks under three between-subjects conditions.
The three conditions differed only in the belief verb that was
used in probe questions regarding one's own or another person's
namely the Chinese verbs, xiang, yiwei, and
dang. While the three words
are all appropriate to false beliefs, they have different connotations
regarding the likelihood of a belief being false, with xiang being
neutral than either yiwei or dang.
Experiment i involved thirty-five
Chinese-speaking adults who responded to false belief tasks to be used
in Experiment 2 in order both to establish an adult comparison and to
obtain empirical evidence regarding how Chinese-speaking adults use
the three belief verbs to describe different false belief situations. In
Experiment 2, 188 three-, four-, and five-year-old Chinese-speaking
children participated in three false belief tasks. They were asked to
report about an individual's false belief when either
xiang, yiwei, or dang
was used in the probe question. Results revealed a rapid developmental
pattern in Chinese-speaking children's understanding of false belief,
which is similar to that found with Western children. In addition,
children performed significantly better when yiwei and dang, which
connote that the belief referred to may be false, were used in belief
questions than when xiang, the more neutral verb, was used. This
finding suggests an important role of language in assessing children's
understanding of belief and false belief.
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