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There are many investigations about thin film. However, these are limited to the surface layer thin film on substrates. It Is very important to know the characteristics of the extremely thin film itself such as surface layer thin film.
In the present paper, the first part deals with the thickness measurements of the surface layer film and substrate by means of x-ray method, and then the measurement method of their stress - strain curves and the procedure of the measurement are described. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of their stress — strain curves.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
A high time- and spatial-resolution radio interferometer for solar observations has been constructed at Nobeyama (Figure I.; Nakajima et al. 1994). The Nobeyama Radioheliograph consists of 84 antennas, 0.8m in diameter, arranged on a T-shape lines of 500m in the EW and 220m in the NS directions. The time resolution is 50 ms and the spatial resolution is 10”. The field of view is 40’ at the observing frequency 17GHz, which enables us to watch the whole sun. The radioheliograph has observed hundreds of flares during the few months since the beginning of regular observations in July ‘92, and such powerful performance has never before been demonstrated in the history of solar radio observations.
A systematically peculiar molecular composition has been found in a nearby starburst galaxy M 82. Molecules related to grain surface formation and to production reactions favorable at high-temperature are deficient in M 82 among nearby galaxies with rich gas. These molecules are SO, SiO, NH3, HNCO, CH3OH, and CH3CN. Possible reasons for this peculiarity are discussed.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
Tunneling measurements were applied to investigate the density of states of the high Tc superconductor in the temperature range from 4.2 K to the transition temperature. Several structures were found in conductance curves in higher bias region than ever reported, and they vanished around Tc. Temperature dependence of the bias voltages at which these structures appeared showed the BCS-like behavior.
The effect of thermal processing in the sample preparation of YBa2Cu3Oy has been investigated systematically on microstructures and electrical properties. The grain size was found to grow preferably during the cooling process rather than during the sintering process. The high Tc superconducting phase appears around 500 C in this thermal processing. The annealing experiment shows that the grains still grow at low temperature such as 300 °C.
Giaever tunneling measurements have been applied to investigate the electronic structures of the high Tc superconductor YB2Cu3Oy near Tc. The superconducting energy gap of 17 meV was observed in V-dl/dv curve at 77 K. In the light of BCS model, 2Δ0Δ/kBTc was estimated as 3.3. Several dip structures were observed in the bias region up to 0.5 eV in V-dl/dV curve, using the 3rd derivative analysis. Through the temperature dependence, these structures were found to be associated with the superconductivity.
A considerable range in alteration rates of basaltic glasses in various environments has been reported in previous studies. However, these studies paid only cursory attention to the environmental conditions under which the glass had been altered. In this study, the alteration of basaltic glasses was investigated and the environmental conditions and the alteration rate were discussed. Two sample ages were represented: 280 years and 2800 years. Basaltic glasses and their alteration layers were analyzed by electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and the thickness of the alteration layers were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The ground water collected near the sampling point of Zunazawa Scoria and the pore water of both samples were analyzed. The alteration temperature and flow rate of water are estimated to be about 13t and 0.2 1/cm2/y respectively on the basis of meteorological data. The alteration layers of young aged basaltic glasses in freshwater conditions are similar to those of leached borosilicate glasses. The alteration rates of these basaltic glasses are estimated to be several um/1000y. The elemental concentrations in the ground water can be roughly explained as the result of leaching of the glasses.
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is of concern in Japan, where the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is unavailable. We determined serotypes, genotypes indicating β-lactam resistance, and antibiotic susceptibilities of 496 isolates from normally sterile sites in patients (193 children, 303 adults) from 186 institutions between August 2006 and July 2007. Disease presentations included sepsis (46·2%), pneumonia (31·5%), and meningitis (17·5%). Mortality was 1·4% in children and 22·1% in adults, many of whom had underlying diseases. In children, serotype 6B (22·5%) was followed by 19F (14·1%), and 14 (13·1%); potential coverages of PCV7 and PCV13 were 75·4% and 93·7%, respectively. In adults, serotype 12F (14·3%) was followed by 3 (11·3%), and 6B (10·3%); 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) coverage was 85·4%. Most serotype 12F strains were gPISP, with pbp2b gene alteration; carbapenem had an excellent MIC90. PCV7 is recommended for children and PPV23 for adults to increase prevention against IPD.
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