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Given the evidence of multi-parameter risk factors in shaping cognitive outcomes in aging, including sleep, inflammation, cardiometabolism, and mood disorders, multidimensional investigations of their impact on cognition are warranted. We sought to determine the extent to which self-reported sleep disturbances, metabolic syndrome (MetS) factors, cellular inflammation, depressive symptomatology, and diminished physical mobility were associated with cognitive impairment and poorer cognitive performance.
This is a cross-sectional study.
Participants with elevated, well-controlled blood pressure were recruited from the local community for a Tai Chi and healthy-aging intervention study.
One hundred forty-five older adults (72.7 ± 7.9 years old; 66% female), 54 (37%) with evidence of cognitive impairment (CI) based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score ≤24, underwent medical, psychological, and mood assessments.
CI and cognitive domain performance were assessed using the MoCA. Univariate correlations were computed to determine relationships between risk factors and cognitive outcomes. Bootstrapped logistic regression was used to determine significant predictors of CI risk and linear regression to explore cognitive domains affected by risk factors.
The CI group were slower on the mobility task, satisfied more MetS criteria, and reported poorer sleep than normocognitive individuals (all p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that sleep disturbances, but no other risk factors, predicted increased risk of evidence of CI (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.26–4.87, 99% CI: 1.08–7.48). Further examination of MoCA cognitive subdomains revealed that sleep disturbances predicted poorer executive function (β = –0.26, 95% CI: –0.51 to –0.06, 99% CI: –0.61 to –0.02), with lesser effects on visuospatial performance (β = –0.20, 95% CI: –0.35 to –0.02, 99% CI: –0.39 to 0.03), and memory (β = –0.29, 95% CI: –0.66 to –0.01, 99% CI: –0.76 to 0.08).
Our results indicate that the deleterious impact of self-reported sleep disturbances on cognitive performance was prominent over other risk factors and illustrate the importance of clinician evaluation of sleep in patients with or at risk of diminished cognitive performance. Future, longitudinal studies implementing a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and objective sleep measurement are warranted to further explore these associations.
How landscapes respond to, and evolve from, large jökulhlaups (glacial outburst floods) is poorly constrained due to limited observations and detailed monitoring. We investigate how melt of glacier ice transported and deposited by multiple jökulhlaups during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, modified the volume and surface elevation of jökulhlaup deposits. Jökulhlaups generated by the eruption deposited large volumes of sediment and ice, causing significant geomorphic change in the Gígjökull proglacial basin over a 4-week period. Observation of these events enabled robust constraints on the physical properties of the floods which informs our understanding of the deposits. Using ground-based LiDAR, GPS observations and the satellite-image-derived ArcticDEMs, we quantify the post-depositional response of the 60 m-thick Gígjökull sediment package to the meltout of buried ice and other geomorphic processes. Between 2010 and 2016, total deposit volume reduced by −0.95 × 106 m3 a−1, with significant surface lowering of up to 1.88 m a−1. Surface lowering and volumetric loss of the deposits is attributed to three factors: (i) meltout of ice deposited by the jökulhlaups; (ii) rapid melting of the buried Gígjökull glacier snout; and (iii) incision of the proglacial meltwater system into the jökulhlaup deposits.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Biological entities are capable of amazing material feats, such as self-organization, self-repair, self-replication, and self-immolation. Indeed, the most intriguing feature of living biomaterials, whether they are tissues, cells, or intracellular structures, is their ability to autonomously sense, decide, and perform work without the need of a project manager. The effect is multiscale—from enzymes to full organisms, each level is capable of such autonomous activities. Further, each scale has similar energy-using units that work together to compose the larger-scale material. For instance, autonomous cells work together to create tissues. In this article, we will discuss some of the outstanding and desirable properties of active biological materials that we might consider mimicking in future materials. We will discuss how such active materials are powered and explore some fundamental lessons we can learn to direct future fundamental scientific inquiries to begin to understand and use these properties to make synthetic, autonomous materials of the future.
Many snow models have been developed for various applications such as hydrology, global atmospheric circulation models and avalanche forecasting. The degree of complexity of these models is highly variable, ranging from simple index methods to multi-layer models that simulate snow-cover stratigraphy and texture. In the framework of the Snow Model Intercomparison Project (SnowMIP), 23 models were compared using observed meteorological parameters from two mountainous alpine sites. The analysis here focuses on validation of snow energy-budget simulations. Albedo and snow surface temperature observations allow identification of the more realistic simulations and quantification of errors for two components of the energy budget: the net short- and longwave radiation. In particular, the different albedo parameterizations are evaluated for different snowpack states (in winter and spring). Analysis of results during the melting period allows an investigation of the different ways of partitioning the energy fluxes and reveals the complex feedbacks which occur when simulating the snow energy budget. Particular attention is paid to the impact of model complexity on the energy-budget components. The model complexity has a major role for the net longwave radiation calculation, whereas the albedo parameterization is the most significant factor explaining the accuracy of the net shortwave radiation simulation.
We present observational results of the submillimeter H2O and SiO lines toward a candidate high-mass young stellar object Orion Source I using ALMA. The spatial structures of the high excitation lines at lower-state energies of >2500 K show compact structures consistent with the circumstellar disk and/or base of the northeast-southwest bipolar outflow with a 100 au scale. The highest excitation transition, the SiO (v=4) line at band 8, has the most compact structure. In contrast, lower-excitation transitions are more extended than 200 au tracing the outflow. Almost all the line show velocity gradients perpendicular to the outflow axis suggesting rotation motions of the circumstellar disk and outflow. While some of the detected lines show broad line profiles and spatially extended emission components indicative of thermal excitation, the strong H2O lines at 321 GHz, 474 GHz, and 658 GHz with brightness temperatures of >1000 K show clear signatures of maser action.
In 1902 the University of Toronto joined American universities in celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of Johns Hopkins University. For the occasion, A. Bruce Macallum, Professor of Physiology and holder of the Johns Hopkins' Ph.D. (1888), wrote a short essay in commemoration of the American institution. He acknowledged the contemporary debt owed to Johns Hopkins and, by inference, the obligation of Toronto to its example:
But what the Johns Hopkins University lacked in age it made up in service to American scholarship and higher education. In those few years it completely reformed American university ideals, and it developed the higher university work on this continent to a degree that no other university succeeded in doing.
This work considers effect of type and content of dopant on the real structure, state of surface Pt species and oxygen mobility of nanocrystalline Lnx(Ce0.5Zr0.5)1-xO2-δ (Ln=La3+, Gd3+, Pr3+/4+) solid solutions prepared by Pechini route. For the reactions of methane selective oxidation and dry reforming into syngas, catalytic activity correlates rather well with either surface (in diluted feeds) or bulk (in realistic feeds) oxygen mobility as well as Pt dispersion controlled by the type and content of a dopant.
A robotic submarine was used for the first observations of a grounding-line area of a floating glacier. The site was Mackay Glacier which terminates as a floating glacier tongue in the Ross Sea, at latitude 77°S. Half of the 20 m thick basal debris layers in Mackay Glacier are deposited as subglacial till in the last 1.8 km that the glacier remains grounded. Subglacial till observed at and beyond the grounding line varies rapidly in texture and rheology spatially, occurring as a flat sheet, as flow-parallel flutes, or as bank forms into which it has been pushed at the grounding line. Very little free- flowing subglacial water was present during the observations, and no major subglacial water discharges appear to have occurred in the past. The other half of the basal debris is melted out up to 1.5 km in front of the grounding line, producing a sheet of glacimarine sediment as shelfstone diamicton and mud draped on subglacial till. Both till and glacimarine sediment may be turbated by icebergs. This simple model of till overlain by shelfstone diamicton and mud is a direct contrast to sedimentary depositional systems at tide-water termini of temperate glaciers.
The aim of this study was to examine the population structure, transmission and spatial relationship between genotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter jejuni, on 20 dairy farms in a defined catchment. Pooled faecal samples (n = 72) obtained from 288 calves were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) for E. coli serotypes O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157. The number of samples positive for E. coli O26 (30/72) was high compared to E. coli O103 (7/72), O145 (3/72), O157 (2/72) and O111 (0/72). Eighteen E. coli O26 and 53 C. jejuni isolates were recovered from samples by bacterial culture. E. coli O26 and C. jejuni isolates were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, respectively. All E. coli O26 isolates could be divided into four clusters and the results indicated that E. coli O26 isolates recovered from calves on the same farm were more similar than isolates recovered from different farms in the catchment. There were 11 different sequence types of C. jejuni isolated from the cattle and 22 from water. An analysis of the population structure of C. jejuni isolated from cattle provided evidence of clustering of genotypes within farms, and among groups of farms separated by road boundaries.
In this paper we consider a class of stochastic processes based on binomial observations of continuous-time, Markovian population models. We derive the conditional probability mass function of the next binomial observation given a set of binomial observations. For this purpose, we first find the conditional probability mass function of the underlying continuous-time Markovian population model, given a set of binomial observations, by exploiting a conditional Bayes' theorem from filtering, and then use the law of total probability to find the former. This result paves the way for further study of the stochastic process introduced by the binomial observations. We utilize our results to show that binomial observations of the simple birth process are non-Markovian.
Having a depressed mother is one of the strongest predictors of depression in adolescence. We investigated whether the stress of having a mother with recurrent depression is associated with dysfunction in adolescents in the HPA axis and whether the tendency to use involuntary coping strategies in dealing with this stress is associated with exacerbation of dysfunction in this system. Sixty-four never-disordered daughters of mothers with recurrent depression (high risk) and 64 never-disordered daughters of never-disordered mothers (low risk) completed diurnal cortisol and stress assessments. High-risk girls secreted more diurnal cortisol than did low-risk girls. Whereas low-risk girls secreted higher levels of cortisol with increasing stress associated with having a depressed mother, no such relation was present in high-risk girls. Finally, in contrast to low-risk girls, girls at familial risk for depression who more frequently used involuntary versus voluntary coping exhibited the greatest elevations in diurnal cortisol. These findings indicate that a tendency to utilize involuntary, as opposed to voluntary, coping strategies in dealing with stress involving maternal depression exacerbates already high levels of cortisol in youth at risk for depression. Future research that examines whether interventions aimed at increasing the use of voluntary coping strategies normalizes HPA axis dysfunction is of interest.
Efficacy of depression treatments, including adjunctive antipsychotic treatment, has not been explored for patients with worsening symptoms after antidepressant therapy (ADT).
This post-hoc analysis utilized pooled data from 3 similarly designed, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive aripiprazole in patients with major depressive disorder with inadequate response to ADT. The studies had 2 phases: an 8-week prospective ADT phase and 6-week adjunctive (aripiprazole or placebo) treatment phase. This analysis focused on patients whose symptoms worsened during the prospective 8-week ADT phase (worsening defined as >0% increase in Montgomery–Åsberg Depressive Rating Scale [MADRS] Total score). During the 6-week, double-blind, adjunctive phase, response was defined as ≥50% reduction in MADRS Total score and remission as ≥50% reduction in MADRS Total score and MADRS score ≤10.
Of 1065 patients who failed to achieve a response during the prospective phase, 160 exhibited worsening of symptoms (ADT-Worseners), and 905 exhibited no change/reduction in MADRS scores (ADT-Non-worseners). Response rates for ADT-Worseners at endpoint were 36.6% (adjunctive aripiprazole) and 22.5% (placebo). Similarly, response rates at endpoint for ADT-Non-worseners were 37.5% (adjunctive aripiprazole) and 22.5% (placebo). Remission rates at endpoint for ADT-Worseners were 25.4% (adjunctive aripiprazole) and 12.4% (placebo). For ADT-Non-worseners, remission rates were 29.9% (adjunctive aripiprazole) and 17.4% (placebo).
These results suggest that adjunctive aripiprazole is an effective intervention for patients whose symptoms worsen during antidepressant monotherapy. The results challenge the view that benefits of adjunctive therapy with aripiprazole are limited to partial responders to ADT.
In this study, we employed Multiple Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (MIR-IR) to characterize chemical bonding structures of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(B)). This technique has been shown to provide over a hundred fold increase of detection sensitivity when compared with conventional FTIR. Our MIR-IR analyses reveal an interesting counter-balance relationship between boron-doping and hydrogen-dilution growth parameters in PECVD-grown a-Si:H. Specifically, an increase in the hydrogen dilution ratio (H2/SiH4) was found to cause the increase in the Si-H bonding and a decrease in the B-H and SiH2 bonding, as evidenced by the changes in corresponding IR absorption peaks. In addition, although a higher boron dopant gas concentration was seen to increase the BH and SiH2 bonding, it also resulted in the decrease of the most stable SiH bonding configuration. The new chemical bonding information of a-Si:H thin film was correlated with the various boron doping mechanisms proposed by theoretical calculations.
A fundamental understanding of the processes that occur during early stages of corrosion is traditionally limited by the dearth of techniques that probe the liquid-solid interface with both high spatial resolution and microstructural detail such as grain size and orientation. Here, we demonstrate that with a microfluidic liquid flow cell holder, we can track the progress of corrosion in situ in Al thin films with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To mitigate the loss of resolution caused by imaging through liquid, we developed a method in which the liquid is temporarily de-wetted from the entire windowed area by switching the liquid stream from pure water to a mixture of ethanol and water. In the de-wetted region, we then collected images of the film microstructure with high spatial resolution over regular intervals while maintaining a low electron flux over the imaged area to minimize beam-induced effects. For as-deposited films, we find that the corrosion progresses in a fractal manner, consistent with reported behavior for films studied in water with low iron and chloride concentrations. For films that were subjected to rapid thermal annealing, we observe a higher density of pitting events, which we attribute to defects created by thermal stress in the oxide film. Furthermore, we observe that the pits can form at multiple locations in a single grain and are not confined to grain boundaries.
This paper presents a novel, compact, single-sideband (SSB) subharmonically-pumped (SHP) direct upconverter developed in a uniplanar 0.18 μm GaAs technology. A total of 100 MHz in-phase and quadrature signals directly modulate the second harmonic of a 30 GHz carrier signal, producing a 60.1 GHz output. Two pairs of antiparallel diodes reduce feed-through of the 30 GHz local oscillator (LO) signal to the mixer's RF output. Novel structures patterned in the center conductor of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) provide matching and size-reduction simultaneously. The 2.1mm2 circuit also uses a miniaturized Wilkinson divider based on asymmetric coplanar stripline and a standard CPW 90° coupler. The SSB SHP direct upconverter exhibits a conversion loss of 10 dB, a lower-sideband rejection of 15 dB and 2fLO suppression of approximately 25 dB over a wide frequency range from 52–61 GHz.