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Interplay between nervous and immune systems plays an important part in clinical presentation and course of affective disorders.
The aim of the study has been to assess the relation between soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), in acute and remission phase of bipolar depression, in regard to acute and long-term measures of overall severity of the bipolar disorder.
The study has explored serum levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 in 43 patients with bipolar depression. The adhesion molecules’ levels of patient group have been analyzed in acute and remission phases, in regard to bipolarity index (BPIX) and in regard to global functioning (measured by Global Assesment of Functioning Scale- GAF)
The acute serum levels of sICAM-1 have been associated to BPIX. Moreover, sVCAM-1 serum selevels have been associated to BPIX in both phases of the disorder. In addition, acute sVCAM-1 levels have been associted to GAF score in accute phase.
Our results suggest that cellular adhesion is an important factor in clinical presentation and overall severity of bipolar disorder.
Growing evidence in the field of psychoneuroimmunology indicates an interconnection between psychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia and mood disorders, and cytokine alternations. Gender and aging are commonly reported to affect cytokine levels, but contrasting conclusions still represent a topic for debate.
Objectives and aims
Our aim was to investigate the role of age and gender in the serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), in patients with schizophrenia (SCH) and major depression (MDD).
We measured serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in acute exacerbation of illness, in 37 patients with MDD, and compared them to 43 patients with SCH. The serum levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All patients fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria.
The significant interaction between gender and psychiatric disorders on serum cytokine levels, and the association between IL-6 and TNF-α and age, in both groups of patients, were not detected. However, when applied the linear regression model with the serum cytokine levels as dependant variable, and age, gender, and psychiatric disorder as independent variables, the significant predictive effect of age on levels of both investigated cytokines was detected. The patients over 35 years of age had higher levels of IL-6 and even significantly lower levels of TNF-α, regardless of the diagnosis.
The results suggest that the aging process could be a relevant factor influencing the immune status of patients with SCH and MDD. Further prospective studies are essential to further investigate biological mechanisms that underlie these multidimensional interconnections.
Immune alterations are considered an important factor in etiopathogenesis of bipolar disorder.
The aim of the study has been to assess the relation between soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), in acute and remission phase of mania, in regard to severity of depressive and manic symptoms.
The study has explored serum levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 in 40 patients with mania. The adhesion molecules' levels of patient group have been analyzed in acute and remission phases, in regard to severity of depressive sympotoms (measured by Hamilton Depression Scale) and in regard to severity of manic symptoms (measured by Young Mania Rating Scale).
The acute serum levels of sVCAM-1 have been inversily associated to YMRS score and directly associated to HAMD score, in acute phase. Serum levels of sICAM-1 have shown no association to severity of affective symptoms, in both phases of the disorder.
Our results suggest that cellular adhesion acute could be one of the factors mediating affective symptoms presentation in bipolar mania.
Immune parameters are frequently associated with mood disorders and affective temperaments. In our study, we investigate the role of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in affective temperaments and mood symptoms in healthy adults.
Healthy adults were screened for psychiatric disorders using the non-patient version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-I and II. Affective temperaments were evaluated with Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). State mood symptoms were assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Serum sICAM-1 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
We identified no association between sICAM-1 levels and affective temperament scores. We identified correlation between sICAM-1 levels and manic symptoms measured by YMRS. Furthermore, sICAM-1 was a significant predictor of manic symptoms in a linear regression model with age, gender, BMI and smoking habits as confounding variables.
Our findings suggest that sICAM-1 could be a relevant immune factor for severity of state affective symptoms and could contribute to better understanding of complexity of affective disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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