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Pharmacogenetics in schizophrenia comprises pharmacokinetical and pharmacodynamical aspects as well as an approach to identify candidate genes associated with therapy response or side effects. Firstly focussing on classical drug targets like dopaminergic or serotonergic receptors, currently also developmental and regulatory genes presumably associated with effects of antipsychotic therapy are identified. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between therapy response in schizophrenic patients and different polymorphisms previously been identified within a genome wide array in rodents treated with MK-801 and/or haloperidol combined with some well-known schizophrenia candidate genes. We genotyped for 200 different polymorphisms in 285 schizophrenic patients, who were treated with different antipsychotics within randomized controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS scale. Correlations between psychopathology and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model (ANCOVA).
We found significant associations between some well-known candidate genes (e.g. D2-, 5HT1A-, and α1A-receptors) and different PANSS subscales at baseline and after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment considered as therapy response. Furthermore we also identified several significant associations between some genes introduced from the animal model and psychopathology at baseline and towards therapy response. Some of them were formerly described in the literature (e.g. Homer1, Phospholipase C and Transthyretin), but most of them have not been related to schizophrenia or antipsychotic treatment by now (e.g. PLEKHA6, CLIC6 and SOSTDC1).
This indicates an involvement of genes in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia apart from yet known candidate genes and might further help in detecting differential therapy response in individuals with schizophrenia.
Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) tend to present higher morbidity than do those with OCD alone. However, the relationship between OCD and SAD has yet to be fully explored.
This was a cross-sectional study using multiple logistic regression to identify differences between OCD patients with SAD (OCD + SAD, n = 260) and without SAD (OCD, n = 695), in terms of clinical and socio-demographic variables. Data were extracted from those collected between 2005 and 2009 via the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders project.
SAD was currently present in only 42 (4.4%) of the patients, although 260 (27.2%) had a lifetime diagnosis of the disorder. In comparison with the OCD group patients, patients with SAD + OCD showed higher chance to present sensory phenomena, to undergo psychotherapy, and to have more psychiatric comorbidities, mainly bulimia.
In patients with primary OCD, comorbid SAD might be related to greater personal dysfunction and a poorer response to treatment, since sensory phenomena may be a confounding aspect on diagnosis and therapeutics. Patients with OCD + SAD might be more prone to developing specific psychiatric comorbidities, especially bulimia. Our results suggest that SAD symptom assessment should be included in the management and prognostic evaluation of OCD, although the psychobiological role that such symptoms play in OCD merits further investigation.
Quality improvement and patient safety (QIPS) competencies are increasingly important in emergency medicine (EM) and are now included in the CanMEDS framework. We conducted a survey aimed at determining the Canadian EM residents’ perspectives on the level of QIPS education and support available to them.
An electronic survey was distributed to all Canadian EM residents from the Royal College and Family Medicine training streams. The survey consisted of multiple-choice, Likert, and free-text entry questions aimed at understanding familiarity with QIPS, local opportunities for QIPS projects and mentorship, and the desire for further QIPS education and involvement.
Of 535 EM residents, 189 (35.3%) completed the survey, representing all 17 medical schools; 77.2% of respondents were from the Royal College stream; 17.5% of respondents reported that QIPS methodologies were formally taught in their residency program; 54.7% of respondents reported being “somewhat” or “very” familiar with QIPS; 47.2% and 51.5% of respondents reported either “not knowing” or “not having readily available” opportunities for QIPS projects and QIPS mentorship, respectively; 66.9% of respondents indicated a desire for increased QIPS teaching; and 70.4% were interested in becoming involved with QIPS training and initiatives.
Many Canadian EM residents perceive a lack of QIPS educational opportunities and support in their local setting. They are interested in receiving more QIPS education, as well as project and mentorship opportunities. Supporting residents with a robust QIPS educational and mentorship framework may build a cohort of providers who can enhance the local delivery of care.
Applying sufficient tensile strain to Ge leads to a direct bandgap group IV semiconductor, which emits in the mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range. However, highly strained-Ge cannot be directly grown on Si because of its large lattice mismatch. In this work, we have developed a process based on Ge micro-bridge strain redistribution intentionally landed to the Si substrate. Traction arms were then partially etched to keep locally strained-Ge micro-blocks. Large tunable uniaxial stresses up to 4.2% strain were demonstrated in Ge, which was bonded on Si. Our approach allows envisioning integrated strained-Ge on Si platform for MIR-integrated optics. Silicon photonics merge optical and electronic components that can be integrated together onto a single microchip.
The precise control of organic thin film processing by
organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD®) is presented and
analyzed on device level. OVPD® offers accurate and individual control of
deposition layer properties like mixing of several materials (co-deposition)
and the control of various morphologies by a wide process parameter space
given by, e.g. substrate temperature, deposition rate and pressure. The
benefit of precise co-deposition is demonstrated by an OLED with a sensitive
twofold-doped emissive layer and revealed a doping level of 0.26% for the
red dopant with a std. dev. of 0.38%. The effect of the various
morphologies is investigated by optimizing the efficiency of molecular
organic solar cells consisting of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and C60.
With defined process parameters efficiencies of up to 3.0% were
We present initial results from a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds made with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. This survey encompasses a total of 5.6 square degrees with the sensitivity to detect objects below the hydrogen burning limit at an age of 1 Myr. These observations cover a number of known star forming regions, from the massive star forming clusters in the Orion Nebula and NGC 2024, to small groups of low mass stars in the L1641. We combine the IRAC photometry with photometry from the 2MASS point source catalog and use the resulting seven band data to identify stars with infrared excesses due to dusty disks and envelopes. Using the presence of an infrared excess as an indicator of youth, we show the distribution of young stars and protostars in the two molecular clouds. We find that roughly half of the stars are found in dense clusters surrounding the two regions of recent massive star formation in the Orion clouds, NGC 2024 and the Orion Nebula.
We model the L1551 IRS5 source as a system containing two protostars, each surrounded by a circumstellar disk, both encircled by a circumbinary disk, and all disks surrounded by an extended infalling flattened envelope With this composite model, we can calculate self-consistently the spectral energy distribution of the source the shape of the ice and silicate features, and the spatial intensity distributions of the envelope and disks. We compare our model results with the observations, determining the physical parameters of the disks and the envelope. We find that flattened envelope collapse models are required in order to explain the observations and that the infall rate of the envelope is much larger than the accretion rates of the binary disks.
Strained Silicon On Insulator wafers are today envisioned as a natural and powerfulenhancement to standard SOI and/or bulk-like strained Si layers. For MOSFETs applications, thisnew technology potentially combines enhanced devices scalability allowed by thin films andenhanced electron and hole mobility in strained silicon. This paper is intended to demonstrate byexperimental results how a layer transfer technique such as the Smart Cut™ technology can be usedto obtain good quality tensile Strained Silicon On insulator wafers. Detailed experiments andcharacterizations will be used to characterize these engineered substrates and show that they arecompatible with the applications.
First results on formation of thin film GeOI structures by the Smart Cut™ technology are presented in this paper. Thin single crystal layers of Ge have been successfully transferred, via oxide bonding layer, onto standard Si substrates with diameters ranging from 100 to 200 mm. Compared to SOI manufacturing, the development of GeOI requires adaptation to the available germanium material, since the starting material can be either bulk Ge or an epitaxial layer. Some results will be presented for GeOI formation according to the different technological options. Germanium splitting kinetics will be discussed and compared to already published results. To show good quality of the GeOI structures, detailed characterization has been done by TEM cross sections for defect densities, interfaces abruptness and layers homogeneities evaluation. AFM was used for surface roughness measurements. These results help define procedures that are required to achieve large diameter high quality GeOI structures.
Intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are found in most filarial nematodes, but are lacking in some species like Acanthocheilonema viteae. Due to their symbiotic nature and their role in the pathology of filarial infections they are considered to be potential targets for intervention against filarial infections in man. Infection of A. viteae (a species which does not naturally carry Wolbachia) with Wolbachia bacteria could allow comparative studies on the effect of the endobacterium on the parasite and on the host's immune systems. As a step towards such studies we microinjected adult female A. viteae with Wolbachia obtained from Litomosoides sigmodontis. The bacteria were isolated from L. sigmodontis by density-gradient centrifugation, microinjected into A. viteae worms and bacterial DNA detected by PCR with Wolbachia specific primers (ftsZ gene). Microinjected worms were cultured in vitro, and 81% survived for 10 days. Implantation of microinjected worms into Meriones unguiculatus, the rodent host of A. viteae resulted in 38% survival. The DNA of the microinjected worms recovered from jirds 8 weeks after implantation contained Wolbachia DNA as shown by PCR, suggesting that Wolbachia of L. sigmodontis can be horizontally transmitted to A. viteae.
Caseinophosphopeptides (CPP) were detected for the first time in ileostomy fluid, collected at 2 h intervals for 10 h post milk and CPP ingestion, from human volunteers with an ileostomy. The level of CPP present in ileostomy fluid obtained from milk-fed volunteers was markedly higher than that from volunteers fed with selected CPP preparations. The findings are based on HPLC analysis in combination with peptide-bound P determination, thin-layer electrophoresis and amino acid analysis, together with ELISA studies using polyclonal antibodies raised against a set of CPP to detect immunoreactive CPP in ileostomy fluid. These procedures allowed the detection of nm concentrations of CPP. CPP, which can be released during intestinal digestion, may function as bioactive constituents and carriers for different minerals, especially Ca, and may be used as ingredients in functional foods or pharmaceutical preparations.
The field of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has matured considerably within recent years and first products are commercially available. After a brief review of the improvement of individual OLEDs we will focus on research topics for the preparation of passive matrix (PMOLED), active matrix (AMOLED) and full color displays. To date, the properties of organic matrix displays basically meet consumer product requirements. Anyhow an industrial cheap fabrication technology for reliable displays is not established yet. To meet the industrial demands for device fabrication a new horizontal in-line vacuum system for a massproduction compatible device manufacturing was installed. For material saving large area coatings the system accommodates up to 7” × 13” substrates. Different PMOLED-Displays based on vacuum deposited organic compounds have been prepared by various fabrication techniques. We demonstrate a 2 inch organic display with 24 × 32 single pixels and 0.9 × 0.9 mm2 pitch whereby cathode texture was achieved using photoresist barriers featuring a distinct undercut. Due to the inherent limitations of multiplexing and in order to satisfy the need for large area, high resolution displays the basic concepts for an active matrix addressing scheme are dealt with. In this regard transparent and electrically inverted top-side emitting diodes (IOLEDs) will be demonstrated. The latter are advantageous for the incorporation of powerful nchannel thin film transistors in the AMOLED driver backplanes. An all-organic smart pixel device comprising a single Pentacene based organic field effect transistor (OFET) and a conventional OLED was successfully prepared. Furthermore a new flash-sublimation technique for the spatially selective deposition of small organic molecules will be presented. We prepared OLEDs comprising flash-deposited Tris-(-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) and Alq3 doped with DCM2 which demonstrate the suitability of this technique for preparation of fullcolor displays based on small organic molecules.
To be successfully integrated in nano-electronics devices, silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) density, density uniformity, size and size dispersion must be controlled with a great precision. Nanometric size Si-QDs can be deposited on insulators by SiH4 CVD. Their formation includes two steps : nucleation and growth. We study the experimental parameters which influence each step in order to improve the control of the Si-QDs morphology.
We show that the nucleation step is governed by the reactivity of the substrate with the Si precursors. On SiO2, OH groups are identified as nucleation sites. By controlling the OH density on the SiO2 surface, we can monitor the Si-QDs density on more than one decade for the same process conditions. Moreover, Si-QDs density as high as 1.5 1012 /cm2 can be obtained. On the contrary, the growth step depends on process conditions. By modifying the gas phase composition, i.e by using SiH2Cl2 as Si precursor, we can grow the nuclei already formed during the nucleation step without formation of new Si-QDs. We discuss the advantages of this process to improve the control of the Si-QDs size and limit the size dispersion.