To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To describe the eating behaviour styles of Irish teens and to explore the relationships between demographic factors, BMI and dietary intake and these eating behaviour styles.
Cross-sectional data from the Irish National Teens’ Food Survey (2005–2006). The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed three eating behaviour styles in teens: restrained, emotional and external eating. Data were stratified by sex and age groups.
The Republic of Ireland.
Nationally representative sample of teens aged 13–17 years (n 441).
The highest scoring eating behaviour style was external eating (2·83 external v. 1·79 restraint and 1·84 emotional). Girls scored higher than boys on all three scales (Restraint: 2·04 v. 1·56, P < 0·001, Emotional: 2·15 v. 1·55, P < 0·001 and External: 2·91 v. 2·76, P = 0·03), and older teens scored higher than younger teens on the Emotional (1·97 v. 1·67, P < 0·001) and External scales (2·91 v. 2·72, P = 0·01). Teens classified as overweight/obese scored higher than those classified as normal weight on the Restraint scale (2·15 v. 1·71, P < 0·001) and lower on the External scale (2·67 v. 2·87, P < 0·03). Daily energy intake was negatively correlated with the Restraint (r −0·343, P < 0·001) and Emotional scales (r −0·137, P = 0·004) and positively correlated with the External scale (r 0·110, P = 0·02).
External eating is the predominant eating behaviour style among Irish teens, but sex, age, BMI and dietary differences exist for each eating behaviour style. Including measures of eating behaviour styles into future dietary research could help understand both how and why as well as what people eat.
The main goal of the field of neuromorphic computing is to build machines that emulate aspects of the brain in its ability to perform complex tasks in parallel and with great energy efficiency. Thanks to new computing architectures, these machines could revolutionize high-performance computing and find applications to perform local, low-energy computing for sensors and robots. The use of organic and soft materials in neuromorphic computing is appealing in many respects, for instance, because it allows better integration with living matter to seamlessly meld sensing with signal processing, and ultimately, stimulation in a closed-feedback loop. Indeed, not only can the mechanical properties of organic materials match those of tissue, but also, the working mechanisms of these devices involving ions, in addition to electrons, are compatible with human physiology. Another advantage of organic materials is the potential to introduce novel fabrication techniques relying on additive manufacturing amenable to one-of-a-kind form factors. This field is still nascent, therefore many concepts are still being proposed, without a clear winner. Furthermore, the field of application of organic neuromorphics, where bioinspiration and biointegration are extremely appealing, calls for a co-design approach from materials to systems.
Antimicrobial use in the surgical setting is common and frequently inappropriate. Understanding the behavioral context of antimicrobial use is a critical step to developing stewardship programs.
In this study, we employed qualitative methodologies to describe the phenomenon of antimicrobial use in 2 surgical units: orthopedic surgery and cardiothoracic surgery.
This study was conducted at a public, quaternary, university-affiliated hospital.
Healthcare professionals from the 2 surgical unit teams participated in the study.
We used focused ethnographic and face-to-face semi-structured interviews to observe antimicrobial decision-making behaviors across the patient’s journey from the preadmission clinic to the operating room to the postoperative ward.
We identified 4 key themes influencing decision making in the surgical setting. Compartmentalized communication (theme 1) was observed with demarcated roles and defined pathways for communication (theme 2). Antimicrobial decisions in the operating room were driven by the most senior members of the team. These decisions, however, were delegated to more junior members of staff in the ward and clinic environment (theme 3). Throughout the patient’s journey, communication with the patient about antimicrobial use was limited (theme 4).
Approaches to decision making in surgery are highly structured. Although this structure appears to facilitate smooth flow of responsibility, more junior members of the staff may be disempowered. In addition, opportunities for shared decision making with patients were limited. Antimicrobial stewardship programs need to recognize the hierarchal structure as well as opportunities to engage the patient in shared decision making.
Polymer-containing solutions used across research and industry are commonly exposed to mechanically harsh fluid processes, for example shear and extensional forces during flow through porous media or rapid microdispensing of biopharmaceutical molecules. These forces are strong enough to break the covalent bonds in the polymer backbone. As this scission phenomenon can change the functional and fluid-flow properties as well as introduce reactive radicals into the solution, it must be understood and controlled. Experiments and models to date have only provided partial or qualitative insights into this behaviour. Here we build a link between the molecular-scale degradation models and the macroscale laminar flow of dilute solutions in any given geometry. A free-draining bead–rod model is used to investigate rupture events at the molecular scale. It is shown by uniaxial extension simulations of an ensemble of chains that scission can be conveniently described at the macroscopic scale as a first-order reaction whose rate is a function of the conformation tensor of the macromolecules and the velocity gradient of the flow. This approach is implemented in the finite volume code OpenFOAM by elaborating an appropriate constitutive equation for the conformation tensor. The macroscopic model is run and analysed for ultra-dilute solutions of poly(methyl methacrylate) in ethyl acetate and polyethylene oxide in water, using the geometry of an abrupt contraction flow and neglecting any viscoelastic effect. This multiscale approach bridges the gap between phenomenological observations of mechanically induced chemical degradation in large-scale applications and the rich field of molecular-scale models of macromolecules under flow.
Recent experimental studies have shown rich transition behaviour in rotating plane Couette flow (RPCF). In this paper we study the transition in supercritical RPCF theoretically by determination of equilibrium and periodic orbit tertiary states via Floquet analysis on secondary Taylor vortex solutions. Two new tertiary states are discovered which we name oscillatory wavy vortex flow (oWVF) and skewed vortex flow (SVF). We present the bifurcation routes and stability properties of these new tertiary states and, in addition, we describe a bifurcation procedure whereby a set of defected wavy twist vortices is approached. Further to this, transition scenarios at flow parameters relevant to experimental works are investigated by computation of the set of stable attractors which exist on a large domain. The physically observed flow states are shown to share features with states in our set of attractors.
There is little record of birth weight of Irish Travellers, a minority group in Ireland. Travellers are known to have higher rate of adult chronic disease and to be exposed to life-long disadvantage. The aim of this study was to establish whether the birth weight and infant mortality rate patterns in Ireland's Travellers were consistent with the developmental plasticity hypothesis. A 1-year follow-up birth cohort study was conducted with linkage data from maternity hospital records of Traveller infants born on the island of Ireland over a 12-month period to self-identifying Traveller and general Irish population mothers from the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study. The main outcome measure was the rate of birth weight <3000 g in a cohort of Traveller children. There were 987 confirmed Traveller births, 500 of whose mothers consented to linkage to their records. A social gradient was observed in the distribution of birth weight in the general population and Traveller infants constituted the highest proportion of all social classes in the birth weight range of 3 kg or less (16.3%). There was a high rate of persistent smoking among Traveller mothers (53%). After adjustment for smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the birth weight differential persisted (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4–8.1). Infant mortality rate at 12.0/1000 births (95% CI 5.5–19.7) was almost four times that of the general population. This analysis confirms Travellers had a greater than expected incidence of low birth weight and high infant mortality with high rates of premature adult chronic diseases from all causes already demonstrated previously.
We have measured the attenuation of longitudinal acoustic waves in a series of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon films using picosecond ultrasonics. We determined the attenuation of amorphous Si to be lower than what is predicted by theories based on anharmonic interactions of the ultrasound wave with localized phonons or extended resonant modes. We determined the attenuation of nanocrystalline Si to be nearly one order of magnitude higher than amorphous Si.
Multiple salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contaminated tomatoes. We investigated a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections among 190 cases. For hypothesis generation, review of patients' food histories from four restaurant-associated clusters in four states revealed that large tomatoes were the only common food consumed by patients. Two case-control studies were conducted to identify food exposures associated with infections. In a study conducted in nine states illness was significantly associated with eating raw, large, round tomatoes in a restaurant [matched odds ratio (mOR) 3·1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3–7·3]. In a Minnesota study, illness was associated with tomatoes eaten at a restaurant (OR 6·3, mid-P 95% CI 1·05–50·4, P=0·046). State, local and federal regulatory officials traced the source of tomatoes to Ohio tomato fields, a growing area not previously identified in past tomato-associated outbreaks. Because tomatoes are commonly eaten raw, prevention of tomato contamination should include interventions on the farm, during packing, and at restaurants.
Enhanced near band-edge (NBE) emission was observed from composite structures fabricated from a PVA coated ZnO (PVA-ZnO) nanoparticle thin film embedded with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The enhancement is attributed to the resonant coupling between the bandgap transition of the semiconductor and the surface plasmon (SP) of MWCNTs. Moreover, the PVA-ZnO/MWCNTs/PVA-ZnO composite structures show faster transient response, which is due to the carrier transportation process in the composite structure. Reductions are observed for both photocurrent to dark current ratio and intensity of photoresponsivity, demonstrating a tradeoff between the time transient response and the detectivity.
To describe factors associated with a rectal swab or stool sample positive for norovirus, rotavirus, or adenovirus.
Charleston Area Medical Center, a regional academic medical center in Charleston, West Virginia.
Rectal swab or stool samples were obtained from patients suspected of having viral gastroenteritis. These samples were sent to the Charleston Area Medical Center virology laboratory for testing in 2007. Viral antigen in rectal swab and stool samples is detected by use of commercially available immunoassay kits for each virus. Data were extracted from the virology laboratory database for the following 1-year time period: January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2007. When necessary, additional information was obtained from electronic administrative data on patients.
There were 2,867 rectal swab and stool samples available for viral testing. Of these samples, 1,261 (44%) were positive for a virus. Of these positive samples, 972 (77%) were positive for norovirus, 182 (14%) were positive for rotavirus, and 110 (9%) were positive for adenovirus. The patients in the youngest age group had the highest number of test results positive for all 3 viruses. When the test results for the youngest age group (0-9 years) were compared with those for all the other age groups combined (10-99 years), the proportion of positive cases was highest for the youngest age group (P<.001). There were significant seasonal trends for all 3 viruses. Multivariate analysis of norovirus showed that season, source, sex, and age were significant predictors of a positive test result. Multivariate analysis of rotavirus showed that season and source were significant predictors of a positive test result. Multivariate analysis of adenovirus showed that season and age were significant predictors of a positive test result.
We conclude (1) that these 3 viruses are common causes of gastroenteritis in Charleston, West Virginia; (2) that infants and young children are more likely to test positive for these viruses than are older individuals; (3) that norovirus was the most common cause of gastroenteritis; and (4) that there are seasonal trends for all 3 viruses.
Autism-spectrum disorder is increasingly recognised, with recent studies estimating that 1% of children in South London are affected. However, the biology of comorbid mental health problems in people with autism-spectrum disorder is poorly understood.
To investigate the brain anatomy of people with autism-spectrum disorder with and without psychosis.
We used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and compared 30 adults with autism-spectrum disorder (14 with a history of psychosis) and 16 healthy controls.
Compared with controls both autism-spectrum disorder groups had significantly less grey matter bilaterally in the temporal lobes and the cerebellum. In contrast, they had increased grey matter in striatal regions. However, those with psychosis also had a significant reduction in grey matter content of frontal and occipital regions. Contrary to our expectation, within autism-spectrum disorder, comparisons revealed that psychosis was associated with a reduction in grey matter of the right insular cortex and bilaterally in the cerebellum extending into the fusiform gyrus and the lingual gyrus.
The presence of neurodevelopmental abnormalities normally associated with autism-spectrum disorder might represent an alternative ‘entry-point’ into a final common pathway of psychosis.