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Common cocklebur and sicklepod are troublesome weeds in soybean in the southern United States. A field experiment was conducted from 1991 through 1995 to determine (1) the influence of tillage (no-till and tilled after initial seed deposition) and intraspecific and interspecific interference on seed production potential, emergence pattern, and soil seedbank of common cocklebur and sicklepod, and (2) the dominant species after introduction into a weed-free field. Under intraspecific interference, 1,430 and 1,392 common cocklebur achenes m−2 and 1,827 and 5,435 sicklepod seed m−2 were deposited to the seedbank after 1 and 2 yr of seed production, respectively. For both species, approximately 11% of the initial seedbank emerged under tilled conditions the first year after deposition. Under no-till conditions, only 0.7% of common cocklebur and 1.6% of sicklepod emerged. The second year after deposition, common cocklebur emergence in no-till decreased to 0.25% of the initial seedbank, while sicklepod increased to 8% of the initial seedbank and remained higher than in tilled plots. Under tilled conditions, common cocklebur became the dominant species, and sicklepod became dominant under no-till conditions. Seedbank depletion was greater for both species under tillage. Three years after initial seed deposition, sicklepod seed was 100% viable but common cocklebur achenes were not viable. Under no-till conditions, common cocklebur was depleted in the seedbank but sicklepod was not. Thus, sicklepod poses a greater long-term weed problem than common cocklebur, especially under no-till conditions.
Field studies were conducted from 1988 through 1990 in Fayetteville, AR, to measure competitiveness of spotted spurge in cotton. Population levels were established by transplanting seedlings from other field areas. There was a positive linear relationship between cotton boll numbers and seed cotton yield. Percent reduction in cotton height, leaf area, dry weight, boll numbers, and seed cotton yield increased as spotted spurge densities increased. Seed cotton yield reduction was 47, 57, and 85% for spotted spurge densities of 5, 10, and 50 spotted spurge plants m–1 of row.
Italian ryegrass is a major weed problem in wheat production worldwide. Field studies were conducted at Fayetteville, AR, to assess morphological characteristics of ryegrass accessions from Arkansas and differences among other Lolium spp.: Italian, rigid, poison, and perennial ryegrass. Plant height, plant growth habit, plant stem color, and node color were recorded every 2 wk until maturity. The number of tillers per plant, spikes per plant, and seeds per plant were recorded at maturity. All ryegrass accessions from Arkansas were identified as Italian ryegrass, which had erect to prostrate growth habit, green to red stem color, green to red nodes, glume (10 mm) shorter than spikelet (19 mm), and medium seed size (5 to 7 mm) with 1 to 3 mm awns. However, significant variability in morphological characteristics was found among Arkansas ryegrass accessions. When Lolium species at the seedling stage (1- to 2-wk-old plants) were compared, poison ryegrass was characterized as having a large main-stem diameter and wide droopy leaves, whereas perennial ryegrass exhibited a short and a very narrow leaf blade. These two can be distinguished from Italian and rigid ryegrass, which have leaf blades wider than perennial ryegrass but narrower than poison ryegrass. Italian and rigid ryegrass are difficult to distinguish at the seedling stage but are distinct at the reproductive stage. At maturity, Italian ryegrass and poison ryegrass seeds are awned, but perennial and rigid ryegrass seeds are awnless. Poison ryegrass awns were at least 4-fold longer than Italian ryegrass awns. Perennial ryegrass flowered 3 wk later than the other species. Poison ryegrass glumes were longer than the spikelets, whereas Italian ryegrass glumes were shorter than the spikelets. Morphological traits indicate that some Italian ryegrass populations are potentially more competitive and more fecund than others.
The management of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth has been a challenge in southern United States cropping systems. Registration of dicamba-resistant crops will provide an alternative management option to control herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth populations, particularly those having resistance to herbicide Groups 2, 3, 5, 9, 14, and 27. However, repeated use of sublethal doses of dicamba may lead to rapid evolution of herbicide resistance, especially in Palmer amaranth—a species with a strong tendency to evolve resistance. Therefore, selection experiments with dicamba were conducted on Palmer amaranth using sublethal doses. In the greenhouse, a known susceptible Palmer amaranth population was subjected to sublethal dicamba doses for three generations (P1–P3). Susceptibility of the individuals to dicamba was evaluated, and its susceptibility to 2,4-D was characterized. Based on the greenhouse study, following three generations of dicamba selection, the dose required to cause 50% mortality increased from 111 g ae ha−1 for parental individuals (P0) to 309 g ae ha−1 for the P3. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of the P3 to 2,4-D was also evident. This research presents the first evidence that recurrent use of sublethal dicamba doses can lead to reduced susceptibility of Palmer amaranth to dicamba as well as 2,4-D. Here, we show that selection from sublethal dicamba doses has an important role in rapid evolution of Palmer amaranth with reduced susceptibility to auxin-type herbicides.
Field research was conducted in Arkansas for 3 yr to evaluate imazamox for control of diclofop-resistant Italian ryegrass in imidazolinone-tolerant wheat. Italian ryegrass was controlled at least 89% 49 d after wheat emergence (DAE) in year 2 and 3 by imazamox at 36 g ai/ha applied to one- to two-leaf wheat (POST1), by imazamox at 54 g ai/ha applied sequentially at POST1 followed by (fb) application to three- to four-leaf wheat (POST2), by pendimethalin at 1120 g ai/ha preemergence (PRE) fb imazamox at 36 or 54 g/ha POST1, and by chlorsulfuron plus metsulfuron at 22 plus 4 g ai/ha PRE. Italian ryegrass was controlled at least 95% 150 DAE with all applications in year 1 because of extremely cold temperatures and snowfall in December and January. Only sequential imazamox applications or pendimethalin PRE fb imazamox POST1 equaled the commercial standard, chlorsulfuron plus metsulfuron, for control of Italian ryegrass 150 DAE in years 2 and 3. These treatments controlled Italian ryegrass greater than 80% 150 DAE. Sequential postemergence applications of imazamox or programs containing pendimethalin PRE fb imazamox POST1 are necessary to optimize Italian ryegrass control and wheat yield in an imidazolinone-tolerant wheat production system.
Herbicide-resistant Amaranthus spp. continue to cause management difficulties in soybean. New soybean technologies under development, including resistance to various combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba, 2,4-D, isoxaflutole, and mesotrione, will make possible the use of additional herbicide sites of action in soybean than is currently available. When this research was conducted, these soybean traits were still regulated and testing herbicide programs with the appropriate soybean genetics in a single experiment was not feasible. Therefore, the effectiveness of various herbicide programs (PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides) was evaluated in bare-ground experiments on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and glyphosate-resistant waterhemp (both tall and common) at locations in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Nebraska, and Tennessee. Twenty-five herbicide programs were evaluated; 5 of which were PRE herbicides only, 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 3 to 4 wks after (WA) the PRE application (EPOST), and 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 6 to 7 WA the PRE application (LPOST). Programs with EPOST herbicides provided 94% or greater control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp at 3 to 4 WA the EPOST. Overall, programs with LPOST herbicides resulted in a period of weed emergence in which weeds would typically compete with a crop. Weeds were not completely controlled with the LPOST herbicides because weed sizes were larger (≥ 15 cm) compared with their sizes at the EPOST application (≤ 7 cm). Most programs with LPOST herbicides provided 80 to 95% control at 3 to 4 WA applied LPOST. Based on an orthogonal contrast, using a synthetic-auxin herbicide LPOST improves control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over programs not containing a synthetic-auxin LPOST. These results show herbicides that can be used in soybean and that contain auxinic- or HPPD-resistant traits will provide growers with an opportunity for better control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over a wide range of geographies and environments.
Johnsongrass populations that are resistant to 5-enolpyruvyl-3-shikimate synthase (EPSPS)–, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)–, or acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides are increasingly common throughout the midsouth. Three trials were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 in Fayetteville, AR and Alexandria, LA to evaluate strategies with and without ALS- and ACCase inhibitors for management of rhizomatous johnsongrass in the absence of glyphosate. Fluometuron or fluometuron plus pyrithiobac applied PRE followed by (fb) EPOST, MPOST, and LAYBY tank mixtures containing multiple effective mechanisms of action (MOA) controlled johnsongrass at least 90%. Simplifying the program by removing a herbicide or eliminating an application timing reduced control, and increased vegetative and sexual reproduction of johnsongrass. To manage severe infestations or escapes glufosinate plus clethodim fb glufosinate plus clethodim or clethodim plus pyrithiobac fb clethodim) effectively controlled 15-cm johnsongrass. However, johnsongrass control was reduced when ALS and ACCase inhibitors were tank mixed, especially for the second POST application, compared to ACCase inhibitors alone. Effective herbicide programs are available to growers to control johnsongrass in the absence of glyphosate, but the use of PRE herbicides followed by multiple applications of POST herbicides is critical for successful management.
Field studies were conducted in Arkansas in 1999, 2000, and 2001 to evaluate mesotrione applied preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) for weed control in corn grown in the Mississippi Delta region of the United States. Mesotrione was applied PRE (140, 210, and 280 g/ha) alone and POST (70, 105, and 140 g/ha), alone or in tank mixtures with atrazine (280 g/ha). Standard treatments for comparison were S-metolachlor/atrazine PRE and S-metolachlor plus atrazine PRE followed by atrazine POST. All PRE treatments controlled velvetleaf, pitted morningglory, entireleaf morningglory, prickly sida, and broadleaf signalgrass 95% 2 wk after emergence (WAE). Mesotrione controlled velvetleaf 89% or more 4 and 6 WAE. Control of morningglory species by mesotrione POST averaged 92% 6 WAE. Prickly sida was controlled at least 90% by all treatments 4 WAE. Mesotrione applied alone PRE and POST controlled broadleaf signalgrass 83 to 91% 4 WAE. All treatments controlled broadleaf signalgrass less than 90% 6 WAE, except treatments that contained S-metolachlor, which gave 94% or greater control. Corn yield ranged from 10.5 to 12.4 Mg/ha and did not differ among treatments. Mesotrione PRE and POST provided excellent control of broadleaf weeds, but S-metolachlor was needed for broadleaf signalgrass control.
Palmer amaranth and waterhemp have become increasingly troublesome weeds throughout the United States. Both species are highly adaptable and emerge continuously throughout the summer months, presenting the need for a residual PRE application in soybean. To improve season-long control of Amaranthus spp., 19 PRE treatments were evaluated on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in 2013 and 2014 at locations in Arkansas, Indiana, Nebraska, Illinois, and Tennessee; and on glyphosate-resistant waterhemp at locations in Illinois, Missouri, and Nebraska. The two Amaranthus species were analyzed separately; data for each species were pooled across site-years, and site-year was included as a random variable in the analyses. The dissipation of weed control throughout the course of the experiments was compared among treatments with the use of regression analysis where percent weed control was described as a function of time (the number of weeks after treatment [WAT]). At the mean (i.e., average) WAT (4.3 and 3.2 WAT for Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, respectively) isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin had the highest predicted control of Palmer amaranth (98%) and waterhemp (99%). Isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin, S-metolachlor + mesotrione, and flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone had a predicted control ≥ 97% and similar model parameter estimates, indicating control declined at similar rates for these treatments. Dicamba and 2,4-D provided some, short-lived residual control of Amaranthus spp. When dicamba was added to metribuzin or S-metolachlor, control increased compared to dicamba alone. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, a currently labeled PRE, performed similarly to treatments containing isoxaflutole or mesotrione. Additional sites of action will provide soybean growers more opportunities to control these weeds and reduce the potential for herbicide resistance.
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