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The current transient was studied on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs for RF power amplifiers under different temperatures. The current transient measurements include two different approaches. One is to measure the current transient from off-state (without bias) to a quiescent point (Q-point). Different transient behaviors were observed while switching to different Q-points. Another one is to measure the current transient from different currents to the Q-point of VDS = 28 V and ID = 100 mA/mm. The different currents before switching to Q-point of VDS = 28 V and ID = 100 mA/mm show the different transient characteristics. Most of the current transient demonstrates temperature independence in this study.
In this study, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) were investigated. In addition to a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of the AlGaN and GaN layers for being a channel, a 2DHG was designed and formed underneath the channel to be the back gate. The simulated results showed the operation of device can be depletion-mode and enhancement-mode by adjusting the back gate bias. The fabricated devices showed the feasibility of 2DHG back gate control.
To assess the relative validity and reproducibility of the quantitative FFQ used in the Tzu Chi Health Study (TCHS).
The reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with the 2-year follow-up FFQ. The validity was evaluated by comparing the baseline FFQ with 3 d dietary records and biomarkers (serum folate and vitamin B12). Median comparison, cross-classification and Spearman correlation with and without energy adjustment and deattenuation for day-to-day variation were assessed.
TCHS is a prospective cohort containing a high proportion of true vegetarians and part-time vegetarians (regularly consuming a vegetarian diet without completely avoiding meat).
Subsets of 103, seventy-eight and 1528 TCHS participants were included in the reproducibility, dietary record-validity and biomarker-validity studies, respectively.
Correlations assessing the reproducibility for repeat administrations of the FFQ were in the range of 0·46–0·65 for macronutrients and 0·35–0·67 for micronutrients; the average same quartile agreement was 40%. The correlation between FFQ and biomarkers was 0·41 for both vitamin B12 and folate. Moderate to good correlations between the baseline FFQ and dietary records were found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, saturated and monounsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin A, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe and Zn (average crude correlation: 0·47 (range: 0·37–0·66); average energy-adjusted correlation: 0·43 (range: 0·38–0·55); average energy-adjusted deattenuated correlation: 0·50 (range: 0·44–0·66)) with same quartile agreement rate of 39% (range: 35–45%), while misclassification to the extreme quartile was rare (average: 4% (range: 0–6%)).
The FFQ is a reliable and valid tool to rank relative intake of major nutrients for TCHS participants.
The carbon nanotubes provide large surface that can enhance the gas adsorption properties and increase the conductivity at a lower temperature for gas sensing. The gas sensing properties of the hybrid TiO2/CNTs material are examined in this study. The sol-gel technique is used to prepare a thin layer of nano-TiO2 coated on CNTs. The structure of TiO2/CNTs hybrid materials is identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum. The granules and surface morphology are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical properties of the hybrid TiO2/CNTs indicate that the operation temperature can be lowered to ambient temperature and this will enhance the gas sensitivity for detecting CO gas. The n-type or p-type behavior of hybrid TiO2/CNTs can be controlled by the coating thickness of hybrid TiO2. According to the image results, the mechanisms of the n-type and p-type behavior of hybrid TiO2/CNTs system are proposed.
To evaluate the efficacy of the angiogenesis inhibitor AGM-1470 for the experimental treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
A NPC human tumour model was built by tumour-bearing nude mice using the NPC cell line CNE-2. Twenty-one BALB/c nude mice bearing CNE-2 xenografts were randomized into a treatment group and a control group. In the treatment group, AGM-1470 was injected 30 mg/kg subcutaneously every other day; while the vehicle (three per cent ethanol solution in 0.9 per cent saline) was given to the mice in control group. Tumour volumes and animal weights were measured every third day. Autopsy was performed after 18 days of treatment. The tumour tissue as well as the murine tissues of heart, kidney, and liver in each mouse were removed for formalin fixation and routine HE staining. Pathological evaluation was performed in these tissues.
There was a significant difference in tumour volume between the two groups at day 9 of treatment and this increased thereafter. At day 15 of treatment, the tumour volume was 4251 ± 559 mm3 (n = 10) in the control group versus 3122 ± 967 mm3 (n = 11) in the AGM-1470 treated group (p = 0.004); and T:C ratio (mean tumour volume of treated/mean tumour volume of control) was 0.73, resulting in a 27 per cent decrease in tumour growth. Central necrosis and consequential shrinkage of tumours occurred in both groups at the end of experiment. Physical toxicity and histological toxicity of heart, liver, and kidney did not result from AGM-1470 therapy.
AGM-1470 suppresses the growth of the human NPC cell line CNE-2. Treatment by AGM-1470 has no physical nor histological toxicity. Angiogenesis inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of the local lesion of NPC.
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