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Fibre degradation in the rumen needs the concerted action of numerous microbial species. The removal of molecular hydrogen (H2) by methanogenesis is postulated to eliminate the inhibitory effect of H2 on the microbial degradation of feed material. Different fibre structures in forages can alter fibre digestibility and influence fibrolytic microorganisms in the rumen, which may be associated with ruminal dissolved H2 (dH2) concentration. Napier grass (NG) silage and corn stover (CS) silage were compared as forage sources in the present study. In the first experiment, both forages were incubated to determine fibre degradation, total gas, methane (CH4) and hydrogen (H2) accumulation through 48-h in vitro batch cultures. Corn stover silage had greater (P < 0.05) 48-h DM, NDF and ADF degradation, and total gas and CH4 volumes, and lower (P < 0.05) 48-h H2 volume than NG silage in in vitro incubations. In the second experiment, 24 growing beef bulls were allocated to 12 blocks according to body weight, and each animal within a block was fed a diet including 55% (DM basis) NG or CS silage. Bulls fed the CS diet had greater (P < 0.05) DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), total-tract digestibility of OM and NDF, ruminal dissolved methane (dCH4) concentration, and gene copies of protozoa, methanogens, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and had lower (P < 0.05) ruminal dH2 concentration, and molar proportions of valerate and isovalerate, in comparison with those fed the NG diet. There was a negative correlation between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility in bulls fed the CS diet (R2 = 0.48, P = 0.02), and a lack of relationship between dH2 concentration and NDF digestibility with the NG diet (R2 < 0.01, P = 0.90; interaction dH2 × diet P = 0.006). In summary, the fibre of CS silage was more easily degraded by rumen microorganisms than that of NG silage. Increased dCH4 concentration with the CS diet presumably led to the decreased ruminal dH2 concentration, which may be helpful for fibre degradation and growth of fibrolytic microorganisms in the rumen.
Here, we present an overview of how a tertiary hospital responded to maintain necessary activities and protect patients and staff from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak.
Gil Medical Center, a tertiary hospital in Incheon, has operated a special response team since January 21, 2020. All visitors were assessed for body temperature and respiratory symptoms, and screened for recent overseas travel. Suspected COVID-19 patients were taken to a screening clinic. All febrile patients with or without respiratory symptoms were taken to a respiratory safety clinic. An isolation ward, which consisted of 10 negative-pressure rooms, was used to treat confirmed cases. More than 120 beds were prepared for the outbreak, and patients with pneumonia were preemptively isolated.
By May 5, 480 960 visitors were assessed at the control station, 3350 patients visited the triage center, and 1794 were treated in the respiratory safety clinic. Seventeen confirmed cases were admitted to the negative isolation ward, and 350 patients with pneumonia were preemptively isolated. A total of 2977 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction tests were performed.
While tertiary hospitals play an important role in treating both COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients, hospital staff have to protect themselves from unexpected in-hospital transmission. A multifaceted response must be undertaken to protect tertiary hospitals and their staff during the COVID-19 epidemic.
The present study evaluated the effects of dietary Zn level on growth performance, serum and hepatopancreas metabolites, expression of genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism, and the signalling pathway of dietary Zn-induced lipolysis. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain different Zn levels: 46·4 (basal diet), 77·2, 87·0, 117·1 and 136·8 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicated that shrimp fed the diet containing Zn at 117·1 mg/kg had higher weight gain and specific growth rate, and the lowest feed intake and feed conversion rate, than shrimp fed the other diets. The deposition rate of Zn in whole body significantly decreased with increasing dietary Zn level. Dietary Zn prevented the accumulation of free radicals and improved antioxidant activities by increasing Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and reducing malondialdehyde in hepatopancreas. Dietary Zn supplementation enhanced lipase activity and adiponectin, which could promote TAG breakdown and fatty acid oxidation and lead to reduced lipid in hepatopancreas. The mRNA expressions of ob-rb, adipor, camkkβ, ampk, cd36, mcd and cpt1 involved in Zn-induced lipid catabolism were up-regulated, and the expressions of srebp, acc, fas and scd1 were down-regulated. The mRNA levels of SLC39 family genes (zip3, zip9, zip11 and zip14) in hepatopancreas were up-regulated with increasing dietary Zn level. The results demonstrated that dietary Zn level could significantly affect growth performance, tissue deposition of Zn, lipid metabolites and expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis in Litopenaeus vannamei.
HIV-1 drug resistance can compromise the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A survey of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance (PDR) was conducted in Lincang Prefecture of Yunnan Province. From 372 people living with HIV/AIDS initiating ART for the first time during 2017–2018, 322 pol sequences were obtained, of which 11 HIV-1 strain types were detected. CRF08_BC (70.2%, 226/322) was the predominant strain, followed by URF strains (10.6%, 34/322). Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected among 34.2% (110/322) of the participants. E138A/G/K/R (14.3%, 46/322) and V179E/D/T (13.7%, 47/322) were the predominant DRMs. Specifically, E138 mutations commonly occurred in CRF08_BC (19.9%, 45/226). Among the DRMs detected, some independently conferred resistance, such as K65R (1.6%, 5/322), Y188C/F/L (0.9%, 3/322), K103N (0.6%, 2/322) and G190A (0.3%, 1/322), which conferred high-level resistance. The prevalence of PDR was 7.5% (95% CI: 4.6–10.3%) and the prevalence of non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.6–7.4%), which is below the threshold (⩾10%) of initiating a public health response. In conclusion, HIV-1 genetic diversity and an overall moderate level of PDR prevalence were found in western Yunnan. PDR surveillance should be continually performed to decide whether a public health response to NNRTI resistance should be initiated.
A number of microorganisms were hypothesised as an aetiology of the Kawasaki disease. Unfortunately, no specific agent that provides reproducible evidence has yet been reported. We report two cases of extremely rare Kawasaki disease with tsutsugamushi disease. These case reports suggest that Kawasaki disease can rarely occur concurrently or immediately after a rickettsial illness such as tsutsugamushi disease.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn level on growth performance, Zn bioaccumulation, antioxidant capacity and innate immunity in juvenile mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain). Six semi-purified diets were formulated to contain dietary Zn levels of 44·5, 56·9, 68·5, 97·3, 155·6 or 254·7 mg/kg. Dietary Zn level significantly influenced percentage weight gain (PWG), with the highest observed in crabs fed the diet containing 97·3 mg/kg Zn. Tissue Zn concentrations significantly increased as dietary Zn levels increased from 44·5 to 254·7 mg/kg. Retention of Zn in hepatopancreas increased with dietary Zn levels up to 68·5 mg/kg and then significantly decreased. Moreover, inadequate dietary Zn (44·5 and 56·9 mg/kg) reduced antioxidation markers including total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD activities and total antioxidant level. Crabs fed the diet with 44·5 mg/kg Zn also showed significantly lower expression of genes involved in antioxidant status, such as Cu/Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and thioredoxin than those fed diets containing 68·5 and 97·3 mg/kg Zn. The highest activities of phenoloxidase and alkaline phosphatase were recorded in crabs fed the diets containing 68·5 and 97·3 mg/kg Zn. Expression levels of prophenoloxidase and toll-like receptor 2 were higher in crabs fed the 97·3 mg/kg Zn diet compared with crabs fed the other diets. Based on PWG alone, the optimal dietary Zn level was estimated to be 82·9 mg/kg, with 68·5 to 97·3 mg/kg recommended for maintaining optimal Zn bioaccumulation, oxidation resistance and innate immune response of juvenile mud crabs.
Advanced Ni8W/Ni12W/Ni8W alloy composite substrates used in YBCO-coated conductors with a strong cube texture and high yield strength have been fabricated, and a CeO2 buffer layer film was successfully deposited on the composite substrates. Through in situ tensile testing coupled with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the stability of the cube texture of Ni8W/Ni12W/Ni8W alloy composite substrates has been investigated. The stress–strain curve shows that the yield strength (at 0.2% strain) of the composite substrates exceeds 250 Mpa. The orientation of grains and boundaries on the surface of the substrates was almost unchanged, while the strain exceeds 0.2%, which indicated that the composite substrates are adequate for depositing buffer layers and YBCO layers by the reel-to-reel process.
The number of Korean smartphone users exceeded 40 million in 2015, in which roughly 1 in 5 university students were expected to be addicted to their smartphone. Of importance is that smartphone addiction negatively affects physical and mental well-being and health. Sleep problems associated with smartphone is also a serious public concern; but the evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between smartphone addiction proneness and sleep problems in Korean university students.
We conducted an online-survey which received responses from 608 university students. All participants completed questionnaires on the Korean smartphone addiction scale (K-SAS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and personal characteristics. Based on the scores of the K-SAS, university students were classified into two groups–the addiction proneness group and the normal-user group.
The addiction proneness groups had a higher PSQI score than the normal-user group (7.5 vs. 6.7, P-value < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential covariates (i.e., age, income, and smoking), PSQI scores was significantly increased in the addiction proneness groups (Beta coefficient = 0.69; 95% CI : 0.29 ∼ 1.09). The risk of sleep problems was more increased in the addiction proneness groups (odds ratio = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.33 ∼ 2.98) than the normal-user groups.
We found that the smartphone addiction proneness was associated with sleep problems in university students. Although our findings are further confirmed by elucidating causal relationships between smartphone uses and sleep habits, smartphone addiction proneness may be a risk factor for poor sleep quality.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We aimed to identify the association of hydration status with insulin resistance (IR) and body fat distribution. A total of 14 344 adults participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010. We used urine specific gravity (USG) to indicate hydration status, and HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment of IR) and trunk:leg fat ratio (TLR) as primary outcomes. In multivariate logistic regression, the OR per 0·01 increase in USG for high IR was 1·303 (95 % CI 1·185, 1·433; P < 0·001). In multivariate generalised additive model plots, increased USG showed a J-shaped association with logarithmic HOMA-IR, with the lowest Akaike’s information criterion score of USG 1·030. Moreover, increased USG was independently associated with increased trunk fat, decreased leg fat and increased TLR. In mediation analysis, the proportion of mediation effects of USG on TLR via IR was 0·193 (95 % CI 0·132, 0·285; P < 0·001), while the proportion of mediation effects of USG on IR via TLR was 0·130 (95 % CI 0·086, 0·188; P < 0·001). Increased USG, a sign of low hydration status and presumably high vasopressin, was associated with IR and poor fat distribution. Direct effect of low hydration status may be more dominant than indirect effect via IR or fat distribution. Further studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
The experiments reported in this research paper aimed to determine the effect of supplementing different forms of L-methionine (L-Met) and acetate on protein synthesis in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T cells). Treatments were Control, L-Met, conjugated L-Met and acetate (CMA), and non-conjugated L-Met and Acetate (NMA). Protein synthesis mechanism was determined by omics method. NMA group had the highest protein content in the media and CSN2 mRNA expression levels (P < 0.05). The number of upregulated and downregulated proteins observed were 39 and 77 in L-Met group, 62 and 80 in CMA group and 50 and 81 in NMA group from 448 proteins, respectively (P < 0.05). L-Met, NMA and CMA treatments stimulated pathways related to protein and energy metabolism (P < 0.05). Metabolomic analysis also revealed that L-Met, CMA and NMA treatments resulted in increases of several metabolites (P < 0.05). In conclusion, NMA treatment increased protein concentration and expression level of CSN2 mRNA in MAC-T cells compared to control as well as L-Met and CMA treatments through increased expression of milk protein synthesis-related genes and production of the proteins and metabolites involved in energy and protein synthesis pathways.
To investigate the impacts of depression screening, diagnosis and treatment on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Prospective cohort study including a nested 24-week randomised clinical trial for treating depression was performed with 5–12 years after the index ACS. A total of 1152 patients recently hospitalised with ACS were recruited from 2006 to 2012, and were divided by depression screening and diagnosis at baseline and 24-week treatment allocation into five groups: 651 screening negative (N), 55 screening positive but no depressive disorder (S), 149 depressive disorder randomised to escitalopram (E), 151 depressive disorder randomised to placebo (P) and 146 depressive disorder receiving medical treatment only (M).
Cumulative MACE incidences over a median 8.4-year follow-up period were 29.6% in N, 43.6% in S, 40.9% in E, 53.6% in P and 59.6% in M. Compared to N, screening positive was associated with higher incidence of MACE [adjusted hazards ratio 2.15 (95% confidence interval 1.63–2.83)]. No differences were found between screening positive with and without a formal depressive disorder diagnosis. Of those screening positive, E was associated with a lower incidence of MACE than P and M. M had the worst outcomes even compared to P, despite significantly milder depressive symptoms at baseline.
Routine depression screening in patients with recent ACS and subsequent appropriate treatment of depression could improve long-term cardiac outcomes.
The three-dimensional clusters of streamwise velocity fluctuations (
) in turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) are explored from the perspective of the attached-eddy model, which provides a basis for understanding the asymptotic behaviours of high-Reynolds-number wall turbulence in terms of coherent structures. We extract the
clusters from the direct numerical simulation data of a TBL subjected to an adverse pressure gradient (
). For comparison, the direct numerical simulation data of a zero-pressure-gradient TBL are included. The identified structures are decomposed into attached self-similar, attached non-self-similar, detached self-similar and detached non-self-similar motions with respect to the minimum distance from the wall (
) and height (
). The attached structures (
) are the main energy-containing motions and carry approximately half of the streamwise Reynolds stress and the Reynolds shear stress in the logarithmic and outer regions. The sizes of the attached self-similar structures scale with
, and their population density has an inverse-scale distribution over the range
is the 99 % boundary layer thickness). They also contribute to the logarithmic variation of the streamwise Reynolds stress and to the presence of the
region in the pre-multiplied energy spectra (
is the spanwise wavenumber), i.e. these structures are universal wall motions in the logarithmic region. The tall attached structures with
are non-self-similar and responsible for the enhancement of the outer large scales under the adverse pressure gradient. They extend beyond
in the streamwise direction and penetrate deeply into the near-wall region, which is reminiscent of very-large-scale motions or superstructures. The detached self-similar structures (
) are geometrically isotropic and mainly arise in the outer region, whereas the sizes of the detached non-self-similar structures (
) scale with the Kolmogorov length scale. Here,
is the kinematic viscosity and
the friction velocity. The present study provides a new perspective on the analysis of turbulence structures in the view of the attached-eddy model.
The present study aimed to investigate whether dietary choline can regulate lipid metabolism and suppress NFκB activation and, consequently, attenuate inflammation induced by a high-fat diet in black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). An 8-week feeding trial was conducted on fish with an initial weight of 8·16 ± 0·01 g. Five diets were formulated: control, low-fat diet (11 %); HFD, high-fat diet (17 %); and HFD supplemented with graded levels of choline (3, 6 or 12 g/kg) termed HFD + C1, HFD + C2 and HFD + C3, respectively. Dietary choline decreased lipid content in whole body and tissues. Highest TAG and cholesterol concentrations in serum and liver were recorded in fish fed the HFD. Similarly, compared with fish fed the HFD, dietary choline reduced vacuolar fat drops and ameliorated HFD-induced pathological changes in liver. Expression of genes of lipolysis pathways were up-regulated, and genes of lipogenesis down-regulated, by dietary choline compared with fish fed the HFD. Expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver and intestine was suppressed by choline supplementation, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines was promoted in fish fed choline-supplemented diets. In fish that received lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory responses, the expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, intestine and kidney were all down-regulated by dietary choline compared with the HFD. Overall, the present study indicated that dietary choline had a lipid-lowering effect, which could protect the liver by regulating intrahepatic lipid metabolism, reducing lipid droplet accumulation and suppressing NFκB activation, consequently attenuating HFD-induced inflammation in A. schlegelii.
The effects of straw alone or combined with industrial and agricultural wastes as fertilizers on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are still poorly known in cropland areas. Here, we studied the effects of 3.5 Mg ha−1 straw and 3.5 Mg ha−1 straw combined with 8 Mg ha−1 of diverse wastes on GHG emission in a subtropical Jasminum sambac plantation in southeastern China. There were five treatments in a completely randomized block design: control, straw only, straw + biochar, straw + steel slag, and straw + gypsum slag. Emissions of carbon dioxide were generally higher in the treatments with waste than in the control or straw-only treatments, whereas the contrary pattern was observed in CH4 and N2O emission rates. Moreover, the total global warming potentials (GWPs) were no significantly higher in most of the amended treatments as compared to the control and straw-only treatments. In relation to the treatment with only straw, GWPs were 9.4% lower when steel slag was used. This finding could be a consequence of Fe amount added by steel slag, which would limit and inhibit the emissions of GHGs and their transport from soil to atmosphere. Our results showed that the application of slags did not increase the emission of GHGs and that the combination of straw with steel slag or biochar could be more effective than straw alone for controlling GHGs emission and improve soil C and nutrient provision.
Vocabulary represents a key barrier to language and literacy development for many English learners. This study examined the relationship between Spanish-speaking English learners’ conceptually scored Spanish–English vocabulary, academic English proficiency, and English reading comprehension. Second- and fourth-grade English learners (N = 62) completed standardized conceptually scored vocabulary measures in the fall and state-administered standardized measures of academic English proficiency and English reading comprehension in the spring. Conceptually scored vocabulary measures are designed to tap knowledge of the number of known concepts, regardless of the specific language (Spanish or English) used to label the concept. Regression analyses revealed that academic English proficiency and English reading comprehension were not predicted by the conceptually scored measure of receptive vocabulary. However, both academic English proficiency and English reading comprehension were predicted by the conceptually scored measure of expressive vocabulary. In addition, the relationship between conceptually scored expressive vocabulary and English reading comprehension remained after controlling for academic English proficiency. Results underscore the utility of measures that incorporate English learners’ first and second language skills in understanding the vocabulary knowledge English learners bring to English language and literacy learning tasks.
The regulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis mechanisms related to consumption of lipid has not been studied in swimming crab. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, enzymes activities and expression of genes of lipid metabolism in hepatopancreas of juvenile swimming crab. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain crude lipid levels at 5·8, 9·9 and 15·1 %. Crabs fed the diet containing 15·1 % lipid had significantly lower growth performance and feed utilisation than those fed the 5·8 and 9·9 % lipid diets. Crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower malondialdehyde concentrations in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Highest glutathione peroxidase in haemolymph and superoxide dismutase in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. The lowest fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 15·1 % lipid, whereas crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity than those fed the other diets. Crabs fed 15·1 % lipid showed lower hepatopancreas expression of genes involved in long-chain-PUFA biosynthesis, lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, lipid anabolism and lipid catabolism than those fed the other diets, whereas expression of some genes of lipoprotein assembly and fatty acid oxidation was up-regulated compared with crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. Overall, high dietary lipid level can inhibit growth, reduce antioxidant enzyme activities and influence lipid metabolic pathways to regulate lipid deposition in crab.
A novel solid-clad-by-liquid method was developed to form a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite tape. Three deformation routes (cold rolling, cold rolling with intermediate annealing, and cold rolling combined with warm rolling) have been investigated in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate. To optimize the dynamic continuous annealing parameters for the long composite substrates, air-cooled and furnace-cooled annealing procedures were compared in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrates. Improved cube texture of 98.7% in a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate was achieved via warm rolling deformation at 550 °C and two-step dynamic continuous annealing (750 °C for 1 h followed by 1200 °C for 1 h). The yield strength, Curie temperature, and saturation magnetization of 176 MPa, 324 K, and 18 emu/g, respectively, were obtained.
A Pickering emulsion was prepared via synergistic stabilization of a lipase and palygorskite particles. The optimum conditions for the stabilization of the Pickering emulsion, such as the concentrations of the palygorskite particles and lipase, were explored. The morphology of emulsion droplets was examined using digital optical microscopy and polarizing optical microscopy. The palygorskite–lipase co-stabilized Pickering emulsions were investigated by determination of the adsorption rate, pH and zeta potential of the aqueous dispersion, as well as by determining the contact angle values of the lipase solution on a palygorskite disc that was immersed in toluene. The catalytic performance of the immobilized lipase in the Pickering emulsion was studied via the investigation of its thermal stability, storage stability and reusability. The immobilized lipase showed greater stability than the free lipase. The lipase immobilized by Pickering emulsion retained a high level of activity even after seven periods of recycling.