To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Camberwell Assessment of Need Forensic Version (CANFOR) is a tool for assessing the needs of people with mental health problems who are in contact with forensic services. It is based on the CAN, a widely used needs assessment for people with severe mental health problems. Individual needs are assessed in 25 areas of life, spanning health, social, clinical and functional domains. Comprehensive versions are available for research (CANFOR-R) and clinical use (CANFOR-C), as well as a short summary version (CANFOR-S) suitable for both research and clinical use. CANFOR was rigorously developed by a multidisciplinary team at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, and is suitable for use in all forensic mental health and prison settings. This second edition provides an update of the CANFOR tools and their application in clinical and research settings. The assessment forms are freely available to download from the CAN website (researchintorecovery.com/can) and cambridge.org.
The first edition of the CAN was published in 1995 by the Section of Community Psychiatry (PRiSM) at what is now called the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience in London, England. The accompanying book was published in 1999 by Gaskell, the imprint of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.
The Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal (CANSAS), 2nd edition, is a short (single page) summary of the needs of a mental health service user.
CANSAS can be used in clinical settings because it is short enough to be used for review purposes on a routine basis. It can be used for teaching, e.g. as part of pre-qualification or post-qualification training of mental health workers to support their development of skills in assessing the health and social needs of service users. Finally, it can be used as an outcome measure in research studies. CANSAS is the CAN version that is most commonly used in research studies, especially when a number of assessment schedules are being used.
The CAN is now the most widely used needs assessment measure in mental health systems internationally. For example, in relation to psychosis, it is the most widely cited measure in first-episode psychosis studies, and a review of patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia concluded that ‘the most commonly used measures are the Camberwell Assessment of Need and the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule’ (p. 22). It is also used to assess needs in diverse mental health groups (e.g. psychosis, bipolar disorder, common mental disorders) with other clinical (e.g. neurology, HIV) and non-clinical (e.g. sex trafficking, asylum seekers, non-clinical voice hearers) populations, and to compare the needs of different populations, such as people with and without intellectual disabilities in mental health case management services.
The Camberwell Assessment of Need-Research version (CAN-R), 2nd edition, is intended for use as an outcome measure for research purposes.
A copy of the 2nd edition of CAN-R that is suitable for scanning is provided in Appendix 6, with CAN-R summary score sheets in Appendix 7. These can also be downloaded as PDF files from the CAN website (researchintorecovery.com/can).
The original psychometric evaluation of the CAN was published in 1995, and the paper reporting this evaluation is included as Appendix 8. In brief, the selection of items to be included in the CAN-R was guided by validity studies, including surveys of people living with severe mental health problems and of mental health professionals. The psychometric evaluation of CAN-R involved people with severe mental health problems attending an inner-city mental health service, and their mental health professional. The mean total number of needs identified by staff (n = 60) was 7.55 and by service users (n = 49) was 8.64. Inter-rater reliability of the total number of needs identified by staff were 0.99, and test–retest reliability was 0.78. The percentage complete agreement on individual items ranged from 81.6 to 100% (inter-rater) and 58.1 to 100% (test–retest).
All versions of CAN involving staff completion (i.e. CANSAS, CAN-R, CAN-C) can be used without any formal training by mental health professionals. Each version contains a page outlining how to rate responses and, in the CAN-R and CAN-C, every rating has anchor points for guidance. Reading through the CAN-R or CAN-C will give the staff member a good overview of the approach used, and a relatively good assessment can be expected from the first use. The main improvement in subsequent assessments is likely to be in the time taken for assessment, which will reduce as familiarity with the measure increases.
The Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule – Patient (CANSAS-P), 2nd edition, is a short (two-page) self-rated measure completed by the mental health service user.
CANSAS-P can be used in clinical settings because it is short enough to be used for review purposes on a routine basis, or for completion before a clinical meeting to identify the service user’s perspective on their unmet needs. It can be used for teaching, e.g. as part of pre-qualification or post-qualification training of mental health workers in supporting mental health service users to identify their health and social needs. Finally, it can be used as an outcome measure in research studies.