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Most oviposition by Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) occurs near the top of the canopy in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr, and larval abundance is influenced by the growth habit of plants. However, the vertical distribution of larvae within the canopy is not as well known. We evaluated the vertical distribution of H. zea larvae in determinate and indeterminate varieties, hypothesizing that larval distribution in the canopy would vary between these two growth habits and over time. We tested this hypothesis in a naturally infested replicated field experiment and two experimentally manipulated cage experiments. In the field experiment, flowering time was synchronized between the varieties by manipulating planting date, while infestation timing was manipulated in the cage experiments. Larvae were recovered using destructive sampling of individual soybean plants, and their vertical distribution by instar was recorded from three sampling points over time in each experiment. While larval population growth and development varied between the determinate and indeterminate varieties within and among experiments, we found little evidence that larvae have preference for different vertical locations in the canopy. This study lends support to the hypothesis that larval movement and location within soybean canopies do not result entirely from oviposition location and nutritional requirements.
In the US, the substantive rules of tort law are primarily determined by state courts and legislatures. As well, prescription of those claims is a matter for each state. Thus, different prescription rules and periods exist throughout the US, although there are some central tendencies among the states along with variations. In addition, tort claims against the US are governed by federal law, which provides its own statute of limitations.
In what follows, this report aims to address the issues raised by the Questionnaire by reference to legal rules that have gained broad or substantial acceptance across the different US jurisdictions, and will also try to note areas in which the law varies significantly among jurisdictions.
DEFINITION OF PRESCRIPTION
Prescription in tort law is a legal institution that prevents P from enforcing an alleged right against D because of the running of a specified period of time on the tort claim.
The subject of prescription, as can be seen from the above definition, is usually the right of P to tort remedy from D, mainly the right to damages for harm caused. This right to remedy comes into being once a right protected by tort law, such as the right to bodily and property integrity, or the right to reputation, is breached. To the extent that one conceives of the latter right (not to be harmed by tortious conduct) as a primary right, and of the former right (to tort remedy) as a secondary right, it is the secondary right which is the subject of prescription.
Only the first sentence is a definition of prescription. That sentence comports reasonably well with the understanding in the US, although the author would replace ‘institution‘ with ‘rule‘and substitute ‘between accrual of the tort claim and initiation of legal action‘ for‘on the tort claim.‘
This manuscript helps to resolve the ongoing debate concerning the effect of information communication technology on human rights monitoring. We reconceptualize human rights as a taxonomy of nested rights that are judged in textual reports and argue that the increasing density of available information should manifest in deeper taxonomies of human rights. With a new automated system, using supervised learning algorithms, we are able to extract the implicit taxonomies of rights that were judged in texts by the US State Department, Amnesty International, and Human Rights Watch over time. Our analysis provides new, clear evidence of change in the structure of these taxonomies as well as in the attention to specific rights and the sharpness of distinctions between rights. Our findings bridge the natural language processing and human rights communities and allow a deeper understanding of how changes in technology have affected the recording of human rights over time.
Little is known about the determinants of community integration (i.e. recovery) for individuals with a history of homelessness, yet such information is essential to develop targeted interventions.
We recruited homeless Veterans with a history of psychotic disorders and evaluated four domains of correlates of community integration: perception, non-social cognition, social cognition, and motivation. Baseline assessments occurred after participants were engaged in supported housing services but before they received housing, and again after 12 months. Ninety-five homeless Veterans with a history of psychosis were assessed at baseline and 53 returned after 12 months. We examined both cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with 12-month community integration.
The strongest longitudinal association was between a baseline motivational measure and social integration at 12 months. We also observed cross-sectional associations at baseline between motivational measures and community integration, including social, work, and independent living. Cross-lagged panel analyses did not suggest causal associations for the motivational measures. Correlations with perception and non-social cognition were weak. One social cognition measure showed a significant longitudinal correlation with independent living at 12 months that was significant for cross-lagged analysis, consistent with a causal relationship and potential treatment target.
The relatively selective associations for motivational measures differ from what is typically seen in psychosis, in which all domains are associated with community integration. These findings are presented along with a partner paper (Study 2) to compare findings from this study to an independent sample without a history of psychotic disorders to evaluate the consistency in findings regarding community integration across projects.
Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) is a damaging pest of many crops including soybean, Glycine max (L.), especially in the southern United States. Previous studies have concluded that oviposition and development of H. zea larvae mirror the phenology of soybean, with oviposition occurring during full bloom, younger larvae developing on blooms and leaves, intermediate aged larvae developing on varying tissue types, and older larvae developing on flowers and pods. In a field trial, we investigated the presence of natural infestations of H. zea larvae by instar in determinate and indeterminate soybean varieties. In complementary experiments, we artificially infested H. zea and allowed them to oviposit on plants within replicated cages (one with a determinate variety and two with an indeterminate variety). Plants were sampled weekly during the time larvae were present. In the natural infestation experiment, most larvae were found on blooms during R3 and were early to middle instars; by R4, most larvae were found on leaves and were middle to late instars. In contrast, in the cage study, most larvae were found on leaves regardless of soybean growth stage or larval stage. Determinate and indeterminate growth habit did not impact larval preference for different soybean tissue types. Our studies suggest H. zea larvae prefer specific tissue types, but also provide evidence that experimental design can influence the results. Finally, our finding of larval preference for leaves contrasts with findings from previous studies.
In an initial study (Study 1), we found that motivation predicted community integration (i.e. functional recovery) 12 months after receiving housing in formerly homeless Veterans with a psychotic disorder. The current study examined whether the same pattern would be found in a broader, more clinically diverse, homeless Veteran sample without psychosis.
We examined four categories of variables as potential predictors of community integration in non-psychotic Veterans: perception, non-social cognition, social cognition, and motivation at baseline (after participants were engaged in a permanent supported housing program but before receiving housing) and a 12-month follow-up. A total of 82 Veterans had a baseline assessment and 41 returned for testing after 12 months.
The strongest longitudinal association was between an interview-based measure of motivation (the motivation and pleasure subscale from the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms) at baseline and measures of social integration at 12 months. In addition, cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent with a causal influence of general psychiatric symptoms at baseline driving social integration at 12 months, and reduced expressiveness at baseline driving independent living at 12 months, but there were no significant causal associations with measures of motivation.
The findings from this study complement and reinforce those in Veterans with psychosis. Across these two studies, our findings suggest that motivational factors are associated at baseline and at 12 months and are particularly important for understanding and improving community integration in recently-housed Veterans across psychiatric diagnoses.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
To characterise the mortality and neurological outcomes of paediatric cardiac patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than 30 minutes prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation and to identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes in this population.
Materials and methods:
Observational retrospective cohort study in paediatric cardiac patients undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation for greater than 30 minutes prior to cannulation in a tertiary children’s hospital, from July 2000 to July 2013.
Seventy-three paediatric cardiac patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than 30 minutes prior to cannulation were included in the study. Survival to hospital discharge was 43.8%, with 75% of survivors having either normal neurologic function or only mild disability. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that increased use of calcium during resuscitation (odds ratio 14.5, p 0.01), cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration >50 minutes (odds ratio 4.12, p 0.03), >6 interruptions of chest compressions during cannulation (odds ratio 6.40, p 0.03), the need for continuous renal replacement therapy (odds ratio 11.1, p 0.001), and abnormal pupillary response during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (odds ratio 33.9, p 0.006) were independent predictors for hospital mortality.
Survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation for more than 30 minutes prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation in our paediatric cardiac cohort was 43.8%. Factors associated with mortality included calcium use during resuscitation, longer cardiopulmonary resuscitation, increased chest compression pauses during cannulation, the use of continuous renal replacement therapy, and abnormal pupils during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. A prospective assessment of these factors in paediatric cardiac patients may be beneficial in improving outcomes.
Narrow-windrow burning has been a successful form of harvest weed seed control in Australian cropping systems, but little is known about the efficacy of narrow-windrow burning on weed seeds infesting U.S. cropping systems. An experiment was conducted using a high-fire kiln that exposed various grass and broadleaf weed seeds to temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 C for 20, 40, 60, and 80 s to determine the temperature and time needed to kill weed seeds. Weeds evaluated included Italian ryegrass, barnyardgrass, johnsongrass, sicklepod, Palmer amaranth, prickly sida, velvetleaf, pitted morningglory, and hemp sesbania. Two field experiments were also conducted over consecutive growing seasons, with the first experiment aimed at determining the amount of heat produced during burning of narrow windrows of soybean harvest residues (chaff and straw) and the effect of this heat on weed seed mortality. The second field experiment aimed to determine the effect of wind speed on the duration and intensity of burning narrow windrows of soybean harvest residues. Following exposure to the highest temperature and longest duration in the kiln, only sicklepod showed any survival (<1% average); however, in most cases, the seeds were completely destroyed (ash). A heat index of only 22,600 was needed to kill all seeds of Palmer amaranth, barnyardgrass, and Italian ryegrass. In the field, all seeds of the evaluated weed species were completely destroyed by narrow-windrow burning of 1.08 to 1.95 kg m−2 of soybean residues. The burn duration of the soybean harvest residues declined as wind speed increased. Findings from the kiln and field experiments show that complete kill is likely for weed seeds concentrated into narrow windrows of burned soybean residues. Given the low cost of implementation of narrow-windrow burning and the seed kill efficacy on various weed species, this strategy may be an attractive option for destroying weed seed.
Turbulent superstructures, i.e. large-scale flow structures in turbulent flows, play a crucial role in many geo- and astrophysical settings. In turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection, for example, horizontally extended coherent large-scale convection rolls emerge. Currently, a detailed understanding of the interplay of small-scale turbulent fluctuations and large-scale coherent structures is missing. Here, we investigate the resolved kinetic energy and temperature variance budgets by applying a filtering approach to direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh–Bénard convection at high aspect ratio. In particular, we focus on the energy transfer rate between large-scale flow structures and small-scale fluctuations. We show that the small scales primarily act as a dissipation for the superstructures. However, we find that the height-dependent energy transfer rate has a complex structure with distinct bulk and boundary layer features. Additionally, we observe that the heat transfer between scales mainly occurs close to the thermal boundary layer. Our results clarify the interplay of superstructures and turbulent fluctuations and may help to guide the development of an effective description of large-scale flow features in terms of reduced-order models.
In Leviathan, Hobbes uses his new theory of authorization to explain the nature of corporate persons. While On the Citizen lacks the theory of authorization, it includes several accounts of corporate persons. In On the Citizen, Hobbes suggests that a group forms a corporate person when its members accept obligations to support a sovereign, when the members are all compelled to act in concert, or when the members of the group adopt voting rules for making decisions. Hobbes also uses his analysis of the commonwealth as a corporate person to argue for the sovereign’s immunity in On the Citizen much as he does in Leviathan. Generally speaking, the Leviathan account of corporate persons is superior to the ones in On the Citizen. However, Hobbes needs the voting rules account from On the Citizen in order to explain how democratic and aristocratic assemblies can serve as sovereigns. Since he tries to replace the voting rules account with the authorization account in Leviathan, this raises a problem for him that he does not appreciate.
This chapter will address the need for more strategic actions by organized labor regarding matters of race given the increasing racial diversity in the make-up of unionized workplaces. There are challenges for unions when matters of racial justice pit union member versus union member. Nevertheless, this chapter asserts that union leadership must embrace the growing concerns of a racially diverse membership and the impact of recent social movements in highlighting societal concerns about race. Then union leadership can establish a new platform that approaches those concerns at the bargaining table by advocating creative contract terms that value workplace diversity, including dispute resolution tools within the grievance process that will promote worker solidarity on matters of both race and class. Finally, the chapter concludes by extolling the virtues of union-led efforts to seek racial justice in the workplace by joining with broader social movements as establishing key win-win consequences for workers of color and their unions.
On March 4, 1865, in his second inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln called the country’s 4 million slaves “a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war.” Lincoln’s use of “somehow” suggests not uncertainty about the importance of slavery, but an awareness that the institution meant different things to different people. To Southern whites, it was a way of life to be defended, but their levels of dependence or even support for slavery varied by individual and by and within regions. To Northern whites, it might be minimally important, or a threat to the white man’s labor, or the South’s means of controlling America’s politics, economy, and society, or central to their own prosperity. To say that slavery caused the war oversimplifies the issue; to say it played a minimal or limited role in Southerners’ decision to secede from the Union, and the Northern and Southern decisions to fight, ignores reality.
In the United States, both tort and contract law are generally matters of state rather than federal law. While there is a common core to both tort and contract doctrines in the US, one can find variation – sometimes narrow but sometimes broad – across the 51 independent state jurisdictions. In this United States country report, we attempt to provide a synthesis of state law while also trying to point out states whose laws deviate significantly from the synthesis.
TRACING THE BORDERLINES
The bases for liability in tort and contract are thought of as distinct in the US. The phrase ‘law of obligations’ is largely unknown in the United States. Contractual obligations are derived from the agreement of the parties to a contract that sets forth the bilateral obligations of the parties. By contrast, tort duties are imposed on parties by operation of law. This clean conceptual separation can break down in a number of contexts in which a tort occurs in a relationship where there is also a contract or potential contract between the parties, and where a contract is meant to benefit a third party. Medical and other professional malpractice, products liability, landlords’ obligations for defects in rented premises, implied warranties and other terms in contracts, and contractual waivers of tort liability are among the instances in which this occurs.
A court's characterization of an action as tort or contract matters for several reasons. Statutes of limitations typically limit tort actions to two years from the date of discovery of injury; contract actions typically are given four years from the date of material breach. Insurance contracts and principles of governmental immunity sometimes turn on the nature of the claim. The standard for liability is also quite different – to prevail in the typical tort case, a plaintiff must prove negligence; breach of contract requires no such proof, but merely that the defendant breached the agreed-upon terms. In addition, the applicable damages rules are different – rules regarding mitigation, scope of liability (proximate cause), non-pecuniary losses, and punitive damages are much more permissive in the tort context than in contract. Indeed, even some rules that tort and contract actions share – eg causation – are applied differently in sometimes outcome-determinative ways.
Oxidative stress is implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia, and the antioxidant defence system (AODS) may be protective in this illness. We examined the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal brain and its correlates with clinical and demographic variables in schizophrenia.
GSH levels were measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal region of 28 patients with chronic schizophrenia using a magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence specifically adapted for GSH. We examined correlations of GSH levels with age, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and clinical symptoms.
We found a negative correlation between GSH levels and age at onset (r = −0.46, p = 0.015), and a trend-level positive relationship between GSH and duration of illness (r = 0.34, p = 0.076).
Our findings are consistent with a possible compensatory upregulation of the AODS with longer duration of illness and suggest that the AODS may play a role in schizophrenia.
We present ALMA [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum observations of seven z > 6 low-luminosity quasars (M1450 > −25 mag) discovered by our on-going Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam survey. The [CII] line was detected in all targets with luminosities of ∼(2−10) × 108 L⊙, about one order of magnitude smaller than optically luminous quasars. Also found was a wide scatter of FIR continuum luminosity, ranging from LFIR < 1011L⊙ to ∼2 × 1012L⊙. With the [CII]-based dynamical mass, we suggest that a significant fraction of low-luminosity quasars are located on or even below the local Magorrian relation, particularly at the massive end of the galaxy mass distribution. This is a clear contrast to the previous finding that luminous quasars tend to have overmassive black holes relative to the relation. Our result is expected to show a less-biased nature of the early co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies.