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Post-event rumination (PER) has been seen as a key element in the persistence of social anxiety (disorder). Studies on PER-targeted intervention, e.g., cognitive restructuring (CR), has, however, received little attention in adults, not yet in youth. In addition, previous research showed that, compared to interaction, participants reported higher levels of PER after speech task. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CR targeting PER among socially anxious (Chinese) adolescents and also to compare the intervention effect between speech and interaction situations. The present study recruited a sample of 73 high socially anxious adolescents aged 12–16 years and then randomly assigned them into speech (n = 37) or interaction (n = 36) group, without control group. PER and social anxiety (SA) were measured before and after CR. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) results showed that adolescents’ PER and SA symptoms were significantly improved with intervention with moderate to high effect size. Furthermore, the decrease in PER could significantly predict the improvement of SA. However, the intervention effect showed no difference between groups. Although no control group was included, one-session CR still showed its potential to improve participants’ PER and SA. Limitations and future directions were discussed.
This article focuses on the luggage trolley transportation problem, an essential part of robotic autonomous luggage trolley collection. To efficiently address the nonholonomic constraints derived from the formation of two collaborative robots and a queue of luggage trolleys, we propose a comprehensive framework consisting of a global planning method and a real-time divide-and-conquer control strategy. The popular Hybrid A* algorithm generates a feasible path as the global planner. A model predictive controller is designed to track this path stably and in real time. To maintain the formation so that the whole queue of robots and luggage trolleys does not split, a safety filter that consists of a discrete-time control Lyapunov function and a decentralized control barrier function is implemented in the transportation process. Finally, we conduct real-world experiments to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method on three representative paths, and the results show that our approach can achieve robust performance. The demonstration video can be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iPiT8BfLIpU.
The development of high-intensity ultrafast laser facilities provides the possibility to create novel physical phenomena and matter states. The timing fluctuation of the laser pulses is crucial for pump–probe experiments, which is one of the vital means to observe the ultrafast dynamics driven by intense laser pulses. In this paper, we demonstrate the timing fluctuation characterization and control of the front end of a 100-PW laser that is composed of a high-contrast optical parametric amplifier (seed) and a 200-TW optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (preamplifier). By combining the timing jitter measurement with a feedback system, the laser seed and preamplifier are synchronized to the reference with timing fluctuations of 1.82 and 4.48 fs, respectively. The timing system will be a key prerequisite for the stable operation of 100-PW laser facilities and provide the basis for potential pump–probe experiments performed on the laser.
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a type of programmable materials capable of transforming their shapes in a pre-programmed way upon the application of an external stimulus. These materials have been tested for various potential applications particularly in the biomedical field for polymers with general and specific requirements. This review focuses on the recent advances in biomedical applications, including self-tightening sutures, pressure bandages, self-expansion stents, tissue engineering scaffolds, artificial muscles, drug delivery, and orthodontic archwires, after a brief description of the concepts, classifications, programming procedures, and material requirements of SMPs.
We report here the first hundred-watt continuous wave fiber gas laser in H2-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by stimulated Raman scattering. The pump source is a homemade narrow-linewidth fiber oscillator with a 3 dB linewidth of 0.15 nm at the maximum output power of 380 W. To efficiently and stably couple several-hundred-watt pump power into the hollow core and seal the gas, a hollow-core fiber end-cap is fabricated and used at the input end. A maximum power of 110 W at 1153 nm is obtained in a 5 m long hollow-core PCF filled with 36 bar H2, and the conversion efficiency of the first Stokes power is around 48.9%. This work paves the way for high-power fiber gas Raman lasers.
Coastal eutrophication and hypoxia remain a persistent environmental crisis despite the great efforts to reduce nutrient loading and mitigate associated environmental damages. Symptoms of this crisis have appeared to spread rapidly, reaching developing countries in Asia with emergences in Southern America and Africa. The pace of changes and the underlying drivers remain not so clear. To address the gap, we review the up-to-date status and mechanisms of eutrophication and hypoxia in global coastal oceans, upon which we examine the trajectories of changes over the 40 years or longer in six model coastal systems with varying socio-economic development statuses and different levels and histories of eutrophication. Although these coastal systems share common features of eutrophication, site-specific characteristics are also substantial, depending on the regional environmental setting and level of social-economic development along with policy implementation and management. Nevertheless, ecosystem recovery generally needs greater reduction in pressures compared to that initiated degradation and becomes less feasible to achieve past norms with a longer time anthropogenic pressures on the ecosystems. While the qualitative causality between drivers and consequences is well established, quantitative attribution of these drivers to eutrophication and hypoxia remains difficult especially when we consider the social economic drivers because the changes in coastal ecosystems are subject to multiple influences and the cause–effect relationship is often non-linear. Such relationships are further complicated by climate changes that have been accelerating over the past few decades. The knowledge gaps that limit our quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the human-coastal ocean nexus are identified, which is essential for science-based policy making. Recognizing lessons from past management practices, we advocate for a better, more efficient indexing system of coastal eutrophication and an advanced regional earth system modeling framework with optimal modules of human dimensions to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective policy and restoration actions.
The Palaeo-Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the Tangjia–Sumdo accretionary complex belt, which separates the North and South Lhasa Terrane, remains controversial. Moreover, the lack of geological records restricts the understanding of the evolution of the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean from the middle Permian until the middle Triassic. Here we present zircon U–Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the Yeqing gabbro. Zircon U–Pb geochronology yields ages from 254 ± 1 to 249 ± 1 Ma. In situ Hf isotopic analyses yield ϵHf(t) values of −0.2 to +6.3. These samples have high TiO2 (3.69 wt %) and P2O5 (0.78 wt %) contents, with typical patterns like ocean island basalt (OIB). Besides, they are classified as high-Nb basalts (HNBs) based on the high content of Nb (45.3–113.5 ppm). Whole-rock Sr–Nd isotopic compositions are similar to OIB, with initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7047–0.7054, 143Nd/144Nd of 0.512526–0.512647 and ϵNd(t) of 0.3–2.7. These signatures suggest that the Yeqing gabbro is mainly derived from low-degree melting of the garnet lherzolite mantle. Based on field observations of HNBs intruding into the continental margin and their geochemical characteristics, we infer that the Yeqing gabbro was generated in a subduction environment. Combined with the regional geology of the subduction environment and the evolution of oceanic islands in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, we propose that the Yeqing gabbro may represent a product of the asthenosphere upwelling through a slab window produced by subduction of seismic ridge in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, called plume – subduction-zone interaction, during the late Permian to early Triassic.
Individuals with gender dysphoria display an incongruence between birth-assigned gender and gender expression. However, there is no existing Chinese measure for gender dysphoria.
This study aims to validate the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale – Gender Spectrum (UGDS-GS) in a Chinese population, and compare the psychometric properties of the UGDS-GS with one frequently used scale for gender dysphoria measurement, the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA).
A total of 2646 Chinese participants were recruited. The following information was collected: sociodemographic variables, gender identity, sexual orientation, gender dysphoria measured by the UGDS-GS and the GIDYQ-AA, anxiety, depression and suicide assessment. Principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to test the fitness of the model. Discriminant validity was tested with one-way analysis of variance.
The UGDS-GS showed good psychometric properties, with the GIDYQ-AA demonstrating slightly better psychometric properties than the UGDS-GS. UGDS-GS also showed strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.89), and good convergent validity and criterion validity. Exploratory factor analysis showed a one-factor structure (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, 0.93; χ2 = 13 342.50; d.f. = 153; P < 0.001). The UGDS-GS was positively associated with anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and self-harm. We also found the results were robust in different samples.
The validated UGDS-GS can significantly stimulate and promote gender dysphoria assessment in Chinese populations, allowing for assessment in a more diverse subset of gender minorities.
To characterize factors associated with increased risk of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) complication.
Retrospective cohort study.
Four hospitals within NYU Langone Health (NYULH).
All patients aged ≥18 years with OPAT episodes who were admitted to an acute-care facility at NYULH between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020, who had an infectious diseases consultation during admission.
Overall, 8.45% of OPAT patients suffered a vascular complication and 6.04% suffered an antimicrobial complication. Among these patients, 19.95% had a 30-day readmission and 3.35% had OPAT-related readmission. Also, 1.58% of patients developed a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). After adjusting for key confounders, we found that patients discharged to a subacute rehabilitation center (SARC) were more likely to develop a CRBSI (odds ratio [OR], 4.75; P = .005) and to be readmitted for OPAT complications (OR, 2.89; P = .002). Loss to follow-up with the infectious diseases service was associated with increased risks of CRBSI (OR, 3.78; P = .007) and 30-day readmission (OR, 2.59; P < .001).
Discharge to an SARC is strongly associated with increased risks of readmission for OPAT-related complications and CRBSI. Loss to follow-up with the infectious diseases service is strongly associated with increased risk of readmission and CRBSI. CRBSI prevention during SARC admission is a critically needed public health intervention. Further work must be done for patients undergoing OPAT to improve their follow-up retention with the infectious diseases service.
We presented the first photometric and orbital period investigations for four W Ursae Majoris-type binaries: V473 And, V805 And, LQ Com, and EG CVn. The photometric solutions suggested that V805 And and LQ Com are two total-eclipse contact binaries, while V473 And and EG CVn are partial-eclipse ones. V473 And and LQ Com belong to the A-subtype contact binaries, while V805 And and EG CVn belong to the W subtype. The O’Connell effects found in the light curves of V805 And, LQ Com, and EG CVn can be interpreted as a result of a cool spot on the surface of their less massive and hotter primary components. Based on two different methods, the absolute physical parameters were properly determined. Combining the eclipse timings derived from our observations and survey’s data with those collected from literature, we investigated their orbital period variations. The results show that the orbital periods of V473 And, V805 And, and EG CVn are undergoing a secular decrease/increase superposed a periodic variation, while LQ Com exhibits a possible cyclic period variation with a small amplitude. The secular period changes are caused mainly by the mass transfer between two components, while the cyclic period oscillations may be interpreted as the results of either the light-time effect due to the third body or the cyclic magnetic activity. Finally, we made a statistical investigation for nearly 200 contact binaries with reliable physical parameters. The statistical results suggested that the W-subtype systems are more evolved than the A-subtype ones. Furthermore, the evolutionary direction of A-subtype into W-subtype systems is also discussed. The opposite evolutionary direction seems to be unlikely because it requires an increase of the total mass, the orbital angular momentum, and the temperature differences between two components of a binary system.
Telocyte (TC)—a new type of interstitial cell with long telopodes, can form cellular junctions with various tissues or cells to participate in the regulation of multitudes of physiological activities and diseases. This study aimed to characterize the morphology, molecular features, and potential functions of hormone regulation in Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) testis TCs at different reproductive stages by histological evaluation, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), and transmission electron microscopy. During hibernation, TCs were widely distributed in the interstitial tissue. In contrast, during reproductive activity, TCs were noted to be in close proximity with peritubular myoid cells surrounding the seminiferous tubule. Moreover, formed cell–cell junctions were observed between TCs and PTMs. The results of IHC and IF showed that the immunophenotype of testicular TCs in hibernating Chinese soft-shelled turtles is CD34+Vimentin−, while the reproductive telopodes (Tps) show low expression of vimentin. The androgen receptor is expressed in Tps of TCs of testis during hibernation. Our results showed also that TCs in seasonal breeding animals regulate the activity of neighboring cells by releasing extracellular microvesicles (EXMVs), thus influencing the activity of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Consideration of our novel and interesting results indicate that the whole area warrants further research.
Variations in pubertal timing and tempo have relevance to psychosocial development. Accounting for pubertal timing, tempo, and psychosocial development simultaneously in a model remains challenging. This study aimed to document the typology of pubertal development in a cohort of Taiwanese adolescent boys and then to examine how the associations between psychosocial variables across time vary by the patterns of pubertal development. A group of adolescent boys (n = 1,368) reported pubertal signs and psychosocial variables for 3 years since seventh grade. The growth mixture model revealed three major classes of pubertal transition: average pubertal growth, late-onset with rapid catch-up, and late-onset with slow catch-up. In a cross-lagged panel model, the multigroup analysis found the regression coefficients mostly invariant across all three classes, except those between deviant behavior and subsequent changes in depressive symptoms that were significantly positive only in the late-onset with slow catch-up group. Adolescent boys in this group were estimated to have the highest marginal level of depressive symptoms and deviant behavior in ninth grade among the three classes. Our study highlights the heterogeneity in boys’ pubertal development and the role of the pubertal development pattern in their psychosocial development.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
Metonymy resolution (MR) is a challenging task in the field of natural language processing. The task of MR aims to identify the metonymic usage of a word that employs an entity name to refer to another target entity. Recent BERT-based methods yield state-of-the-art performances. However, they neither make full use of the entity information nor explicitly consider syntactic structure. In contrast, in this paper, we argue that the metonymic process should be completed in a collaborative manner, relying on both lexical semantics and syntactic structure (syntax). This paper proposes a novel approach to enhancing BERT-based MR models with hard and soft syntactic constraints by using different types of convolutional neural networks to model dependency parse trees. Experimental results on benchmark datasets (e.g., ReLocaR, SemEval 2007 and WiMCor) confirm that leveraging syntactic information into fine pre-trained language models benefits MR tasks.
Understanding predator–prey interactions is essential for successful pest management by using predators, especially for the suppression of novel invasive pest. The green lacewing Chrysopa formosa is a promising polyphagous predator that is widely used in the biocontrol of various pests in China, but information on the control efficiency of this predator against the seriously invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda and native Spodoptera litura is limited. Here we evaluated the predation efficiency of C. formosa adults on eggs and first- to third-instar larvae of S. frugiperda and S. litura through functional response experiments and determined the consumption capacity and prey preference of this chrysopid. Adults of C. formosa had a high consumption of eggs and earlier instar larvae of both prey species, and displayed a type II functional response on all prey stages. Attack rates of the chrysopid on different prey stages were statistically similar, but the handling time increased notably as the prey developed. The highest predation efficiency and shortest-handling time were observed for C. formosa feeding on Spodoptera eggs, followed by the first-instar larvae. C. formosa exhibited a significant preference for S. litura over S. frugiperda in a two-prey system. In addition, we summarized the functional response and predation efficiency of several chrysopids against noctuid pests and made a comparison with the results obtained from C. formosa. These results indicate that C. formosa has potential as an agent for biological control of noctuid pests, particularly for the newly invasive pest S. frugiperda in China.
The aim of this study was to explore the status of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) in three areas with differing water iodine concentrations; and to discuss the relationships between these two thyroid antibodies and thyroid diseases in the three areas. We investigated 2503 adults from three areas. Urinary iodine concentrations, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), TPOAb, TGAb and thyroid volume (TV) were measured, and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. The positivity rates of TGAb(+), TPOAb(+) and TGAb(+) and TPOAb(+) or TGAb(+) were significantly higher in iodine fortification (IF) areas than iodine adequate (IA) areas (all P < 0·05). In IF and iodine excess areas, the positivity rates of TPOAb(+), TGAb(+) and TPOAb(+) or TGAb(+) significantly increased with age (all P for trend < 0·05). The levels of TSH, TV and the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and goitre were significantly elevated in the thyroid antibody-positive groups in the three areas, but the FT3 was diminished (all P < 0·010). Positivity for TPOAb and TGAb was associated with an increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism in the three areas. In areas with different median water iodine, positivity for both TPOAb and TGAb was associated with elevated TSH values. Notably, with the increased levels of TPOAb, the frequency of abnormally elevated TSH increased dramatically in the three areas.