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Metonymy resolution (MR) is a challenging task in the field of natural language processing. The task of MR aims to identify the metonymic usage of a word that employs an entity name to refer to another target entity. Recent BERT-based methods yield state-of-the-art performances. However, they neither make full use of the entity information nor explicitly consider syntactic structure. In contrast, in this paper, we argue that the metonymic process should be completed in a collaborative manner, relying on both lexical semantics and syntactic structure (syntax). This paper proposes a novel approach to enhancing BERT-based MR models with hard and soft syntactic constraints by using different types of convolutional neural networks to model dependency parse trees. Experimental results on benchmark datasets (e.g., ReLocaR, SemEval 2007 and WiMCor) confirm that leveraging syntactic information into fine pre-trained language models benefits MR tasks.
Understanding predator–prey interactions is essential for successful pest management by using predators, especially for the suppression of novel invasive pest. The green lacewing Chrysopa formosa is a promising polyphagous predator that is widely used in the biocontrol of various pests in China, but information on the control efficiency of this predator against the seriously invasive pest Spodoptera frugiperda and native Spodoptera litura is limited. Here we evaluated the predation efficiency of C. formosa adults on eggs and first- to third-instar larvae of S. frugiperda and S. litura through functional response experiments and determined the consumption capacity and prey preference of this chrysopid. Adults of C. formosa had a high consumption of eggs and earlier instar larvae of both prey species, and displayed a type II functional response on all prey stages. Attack rates of the chrysopid on different prey stages were statistically similar, but the handling time increased notably as the prey developed. The highest predation efficiency and shortest-handling time were observed for C. formosa feeding on Spodoptera eggs, followed by the first-instar larvae. C. formosa exhibited a significant preference for S. litura over S. frugiperda in a two-prey system. In addition, we summarized the functional response and predation efficiency of several chrysopids against noctuid pests and made a comparison with the results obtained from C. formosa. These results indicate that C. formosa has potential as an agent for biological control of noctuid pests, particularly for the newly invasive pest S. frugiperda in China.
The aim of this study was to explore the status of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) in three areas with differing water iodine concentrations; and to discuss the relationships between these two thyroid antibodies and thyroid diseases in the three areas. We investigated 2503 adults from three areas. Urinary iodine concentrations, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), TPOAb, TGAb and thyroid volume (TV) were measured, and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. The positivity rates of TGAb(+), TPOAb(+) and TGAb(+) and TPOAb(+) or TGAb(+) were significantly higher in iodine fortification (IF) areas than iodine adequate (IA) areas (all P < 0·05). In IF and iodine excess areas, the positivity rates of TPOAb(+), TGAb(+) and TPOAb(+) or TGAb(+) significantly increased with age (all P for trend < 0·05). The levels of TSH, TV and the prevalence of overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and goitre were significantly elevated in the thyroid antibody-positive groups in the three areas, but the FT3 was diminished (all P < 0·010). Positivity for TPOAb and TGAb was associated with an increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism in the three areas. In areas with different median water iodine, positivity for both TPOAb and TGAb was associated with elevated TSH values. Notably, with the increased levels of TPOAb, the frequency of abnormally elevated TSH increased dramatically in the three areas.
Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important determinant of infant birth weight, and having adequate total GWG has been widely recommended. However, the association of timing of GWG with birth weight remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate this association, especially among women with adequate total GWG. In a prospective cohort study, pregnant women’s weight was routinely measured during pregnancy, and their GWG was calculated for the ten intervals: the first 13, 14–18, 19–23, 24–28, 29–30, 31–32, 33–34, 35–36, 37–38 and 39–40 weeks. Birth weight was measured, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age were assessed. Generalized linear and Poisson models were used to evaluate the associations of GWG with birth weight and its outcomes after multivariate adjustment, respectively. Of the 5049 women, increased GWG in the first 30 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for male infants, and increased GWG in the first 28 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for females. Among 1713 women with adequate total GWG, increased GWG percent between 14 and 23 weeks was associated with increased birth weight. Moreover, inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks, compared with the adequate GWG, was associated with an increased risk of SGA (43 (13·7 %) v. 42 (7·2 %); relative risk 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·76). Timing of GWG may influence infant birth weight differentially, and women with inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks may be at higher risk of delivering SGA infants, despite having adequate total GWG.
This paper presents a new method to reveal the relation between the surface deformation and near-field amplitude of a reflector antenna based on complex geometrical optics, which could be used as an efficient way to estimate the antenna surface verified by simulation results. The measurement process based on this method is envisaged to be realized by a single scanning of the near-field amplitude which would overcome many limitations of radio holography and phase retrieval methods such as the frequency and elevation. The largest source of error in the original deformation-amplitude equation (DAE) has been corrected by considering the Gaussian feed as a complex point source. To track the ray trajectory so that the improved DAE could be solved, an iteration method including a golden section search algorithm is designed to make the solution converge. By solving the modified DAE, simulation result shows that a more accurate solution could be obtained, and the antenna surface could be recovered to a root mean square error of under 30 microns.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation or degrading mRNA. Although the functions of miRNAs in many biological processes have been reported, there is currently no research on the possible roles of miRNAs in Micromelalopha troglodyta (Graeser) involved in the response of plant allelochemicals. In this article, six sRNA libraries (three treated with tanic acid and three control) from M. troglodyta were constructed using Illumina sequencing. From the results, 312 known and 43 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. Notably, some of the most abundant miRNAs, such as miR-432, miR-541-3p, and miR-4448, involved in important physiological processes were also identified. To better understand the function of the targeted genes, we performed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. The results indicated that differentially expressed miRNA targets were involved in metabolism, development, hormone biosynthesis, and immunity. Finally, we visualized a miRNA-mRNA regulatory module that supports the role of miRNAs in host–allelochemical interactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on miRNAs responding to tannic acid in M. troglodyta. This study provides indispensable information for understanding the potential roles of miRNAs in M. troglodyta and the applications of these miRNAs in M. troglodyta management.
The purpose of the current study was to research the factors influencing thyroid volume (TVOL) in 6–12-year-old children and update the reference values. A cross-sectional study was carried out in iodine-sufficient areas of four provinces in China. Urine, edible salt and drinking water samples were collected from children. Children’s height, weight and TVOL were measured. Ridge regression was used to screen variables for solving the multicollinearity problem. Quantile regression was used to analyse the relationship between the quantiles of TVOL and other variables. In total, 5653 children aged 6–12 years were enrolled in this study, including 2838 boys and 2815 girls. There was no significant difference in TVOL between boys and girls (P > 0·05). Spearman correlation analysis showed that total TVOL was positively correlated with age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA) and BMI, and the correlation coefficients were 0·616, 0·663, 0·669, 0·685 and 0·479, respectively. Among them, the correlation between TVOL and BSA was the strongest. According to the ridge regression results, age and BSA influenced TVOL, and the ridge regression coefficients were 0·13 and 0·94, respectively. Quantile regression further showed that age and BSA had significant influences on the whole TVOL distribution (P < 0·001). Therefore, the TVOL of children aged 6–12 years in China was mainly influenced by age and BSA, and reference values for TVOL of different genders based on age and BSA were established.
Background: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is used in the outpatient setting to treat infectious conditions that require a prolonged course of antimicrobials. OPAT has been shown to decrease length of hospital stay and healthcare costs without compromising patient care and has become a widely accepted practice nationally. Due to this trend, the study of OPAT is of vital importance and will continue to be relevant moving forward. Currently, few studies have explored risk factors associated with OPAT complications, and most are limited in their analysis by indication. Further work should be performed to expand upon what is currently known. We characterized factors associated with increased OPAT complication risk. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at 4 sites across NYU Langone Health in patients admitted from 2017 to 2020. We applied the following inclusion criteria: aged ≥18 years and discharged with OPAT. Complications were defined as follows: vascular-access-related (line occlusion, thrombosis, dislodgement, central-line associated bloodstream infection or CLABSI) and antimicrobial-related (laboratory derangement, drug reaction, Clostridioides difficile infection), all-cause 30-day readmission, and OPAT-related readmission. Data were obtained from electronic medical records and the OPAT database. This study was granted a waiver from informed consent by the NYU Institutional Review Board. Multivariate logistic regression was performed, adjusting for confounding variables (sex, age, hospital of admission, history of chronic medical conditions, line type, and line duration). Results: Overall, 1,846 patient encounters of 5,951 reviewed met inclusion criteria. The median age was 66 (IQR, 26), 42.2% were female. Moreover, 810 (44%) received a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) and 1,036 (56%) received a midline cathether. Also, 563 (30.5%) were discharged to subacute rehabilitation (SAR). The most frequent complications were line dislodgement (4.2% of all patients), laboratory derangement (3.0%), and drug reaction (2.4%). Furthermore, 27 patients (1.5%) developed CLABSI. Patients discharged to SAR were more likely to develop CLABSI (OR, 4.1l; P = .005), and they had higher rates of OPAT-related 30-day readmissions (OR, 2.675; P = .004) compared to those who were discharged home, after adjusting for key confounders. Conclusions: Discharge to SAR is strongly associated with increased risk of readmission for OPAT-related complications and CLABSI, after adjusting for key confounders. CLABSI prevention during SAR admission is a critically needed public health intervention.
Prospective cohort studies linking organ meat consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population. This prospective cohort study included a total of 15,568 adults who were free of liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Dietary information was collected at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD. During a median of 4.2 years of follow-up, we identified 3,604 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, vegetable, fruit, soft drink, seafood, and red meat consumption, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident NAFLD across consumption of organ meat were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 1.04 (0.94, 1.15) for tertile 1, 1.08 (0.99, 1.19) for tertile 2, and 1.11 (1.01, 1.22) for tertile 3, respectively (P for trend <0.05). Such association did not differ substantially in the sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that organ meat consumption was related to a modestly higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
Grey matter (GM) reduction is a consistent observation in established late stages of schizophrenia, but patients in the untreated early stages of illness display an increase as well as a decrease in GM distribution relative to healthy controls (HC). The relative excess of GM may indicate putative compensatory responses, though to date its relevance is unclear.
343 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FES) and 342 HC were recruited. Multivariate source-based morphometry was performed to identify covarying ‘networks' of grey matter concentration (GMC). Neurocognitive scores using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and symptom burden using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) were obtained. Bivariate linear relationships between GMC and cognition/symptoms were studied.
Compared to healthy subjects, FES had prominently lower GMC in two components; the first consists of the anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate and the second component with the superior temporal gyrus, precuneus, inferior/superior parietal lobule, cuneus, and lingual gyrus. Higher GMC was seen in adjacent areas of the middle and superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex and putamen. Greater GMC of this component was associated with lower duration of untreated psychosis, less severe positive symptoms and better performance on cognitive tests.
In untreated stages of schizophrenia, both a distributed lower and higher GMC is observable. While the higher GMC is relatively modest, it occurs across frontoparietal, temporal and subcortical regions in association with reduced illness burden suggesting a compensatory role for higher GMC in the early stages of schizophrenia.
In training deep learning networks, the optimizer and related learning rate are often used without much thought or with minimal tuning, even though it is crucial in ensuring a fast convergence to a good quality minimum of the loss function that can also generalize well on the test dataset. Drawing inspiration from the successful application of cyclical learning rate policy to computer vision tasks, we explore how cyclical learning rate can be applied to train transformer-based neural networks for neural machine translation. From our carefully designed experiments, we show that the choice of optimizers and the associated cyclical learning rate policy can have a significant impact on the performance. In addition, we establish guidelines when applying cyclical learning rates to neural machine translation tasks.
Novel navigation applications provide a driving behavior score for each finished trip to promote safe driving, which is mainly based on experts’ domain knowledge. In this paper, with automobile insurance claims data and associated telematics car driving data, we propose a supervised driving risk scoring neural network model. This one-dimensional convolutional neural network takes time series of individual car driving trips as input and returns a risk score in the unit range of (0,1). By incorporating credibility average risk score of each driver, the classical Poisson generalized linear model for automobile insurance claims frequency prediction can be improved significantly. Hence, compared with non-telematics-based insurers, telematics-based insurers can discover more heterogeneity in their portfolio and attract safer drivers with premiums discounts.
We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) intake and long-term risks of CVD, cancer and all-cause mortality in nationwide survey participants aged ≥ 18.
This was a prospective cohort study. Dietary intakes of BCAA (leucine, isoleucine and valine) were determined from the total nutrient intake document. The main outcomes were CVD, cancer and all-cause mortality.
A nationally representative sample of US adults were recruited by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) from 1988 to 1994.
A total of 14 397 adults aged ≥ 18 who participated in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) were included.
During 289 406 person-years of follow-up, we identified 4219 deaths, including 1133 from CVD and 926 from cancer. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of all-cause mortality in the highest dietary BCAA and isoleucine intake quintile (reference: lowest quintiles) were 0·68 (0·48, 0·97) and 0·68 (0·48, 0·97), respectively. Each one-standard-deviation increase in total dietary BCAA or isoleucine intake was associated with an 18 % or 21 % decrease in the risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. The serum triglyceride (TAG) concentration was found to modify the association between the dietary BCAA intake and all-cause mortality (Pfor interaction = 0·008).
In a nationally representative cohort, higher dietary intakes of BCAA and isoleucine were independently associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, and these associations were stronger in participants with higher serum TAG concentrations.
Taurine (Tau) has many profound physiological functions, but its role and molecular mechanism in muscle cells are still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role and underlying molecular mechanism of Tau on protein synthesis and proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells. Cells were treated with Tau (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 μM) for 24 h. Tau dose-dependently promoted protein synthesis, cell proliferation, mechanistic target of rapamycin protein (mTOR) phosphorylation and also AT-rich interaction domain 4B (ARID4B) expression, with the best stimulatory effects at 120 μM. LY 294002 treatment showed that Tau promoted ARID4B expression in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. ARID4B knockdown (by small interfering RNA transfection for 24 h) prevented Tau from stimulating protein synthesis and cell proliferation, whereas ARID4B gene activation (using the CRISPR/dCas9 technology) had stimulatory effects. ARID4B knockdown abolished Tau signalling to mRNA expression and protein phosphorylation of mTOR, whereas ARID4B gene activation had stimulatory effects. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR identified that all of ARID4B, H3K27ac and H3K27me3 bound to the −4368 to –4591 bp site in the mTOR promoter, and ChIP-quantitative PCR (qPCR) further detected that Tau stimulated ARID4B binding to this site. ARID4B knockdown or gene activation did not affect H3K27me3 binding to the mTOR promoter but decreased or increased H3K27ac binding, respectively. Furthermore, ARID4B knockdown abolished the stimulation of Tau on H3K27ac binding to the mTOR promoter. In summary, these data uncover that Tau promotes protein synthesis and proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cells through the PI3K-ARID4B-mTOR pathway, providing a deep understanding of how Tau regulates anabolism in muscle cells.
The gut microbiota plays an important role in animals’ survival in their local environments. The intertidal rocky shore is a key interface of oceanic, atmospheric and terrestrial environments, and the transmission modes of microbes between an intertidal host and the environment are complex and largely ignored. In the present study, we characterized the gut microbiota of the intertidal snail Nerita yoldii, which is experiencing a northward range shift under the combined impacts of climate change and anthropogenic seascape transformation, and also determined the nearby environmental microbiota on the rock and in the seawater at five locations along the snail's distribution range in China. The gut microbial communities were significantly different from the environmental microbial communities, and the dominant phyla were Tenericutes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in the gut, rock and seawater microbial communities, respectively. At the genus level, Mycoplasma, with a relative abundance of 48.0 ± 10.2%, was the dominant genus in the gut microbial community, however, the relative abundances of this genus on the rock and in the water were low. These results imply that the gut microbial community of the intertidal snail N. yoldii is relatively independent from the environmental microbial community, and the dominant genus Mycoplasma in the gut, that is rare in the environment, can potentially assist the snail living in the harsh intertidal environment, especially at its northernmost distribution range edge.
Excessive iodine can lead to goiters. However, the relationship between the water iodine concentration (WIC) and goiter rate (GR) is unclear. This study aims to explore the factors that influence children’s GR in areas with high WIC and analyse the threshold value of the GR increase associated with the WIC. According to the monitoring of the areas with high WIC in China in 2018–2020, a total of 54 050 children in eight high water iodine provinces were chosen. Drinking water, urine and edible salt samples of children were collected. The thyroid volume (Tvol) was measured. A generalised additive model (GAM) was used to analyse the relationship between the WIC and GR in children. Among the 54 050 children in areas with high WIC, the overall GR was 3·34 %, the median of water iodine concentration was 127·0 µg/l, the median of urinary iodine concentration was 318 µg/l and the non-iodised salt coverage rate (NISCR) was 63·51 %. According to the GAM analysis results, water iodine and urinary iodine are factors that influence the Tvol and GR, while the NISCR affects only the GR. When the WIC was more than 420 µg/l or the urinary iodine concentration was more than 800 µg/l, the GR increased rapidly. When the NISCR reached more than 85 %, the GR was the lowest. Thus, in areas with high WIC, WIC more than 420 µg/l may increase the risk of goiter, and the NISCR should be increased to over 85 % to avoid goiters in children.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious respiratory disease mediated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The worldwide spread of COVID-19 has caused millions of confirmed cases and morbidity, and the crisis has greatly affected global economy and daily life and changed our attitudes towards life. The reproductive system, as a potential target, is at a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and females are more vulnerable to viral infection compared with males. Therefore, female fertility and associated reproductive health care in the COVID-19 era need more attention. This review summarises the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the female reproductive system and discusses the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on female fertility. Studies have proven that COVID-19 might affect female fertility and interfere with assisted reproductive technology procedures. The side effects of vaccines against the virus on ovarian reserve and pregnancy have not yet been well investigated. In the future, the female fertility after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination needs more attention because of the uncertainty of COVID-19.
The article aims to estimate and forecast the transmissibility of shigellosis and explore the association of meteorological factors with shigellosis. The mathematical model named Susceptible–Exposed–Symptomatic/Asymptomatic–Recovered–Water/Food (SEIARW) was used to explore the feature of shigellosis transmission based on the data of Wuhan City, China, from 2005 to 2017. The study applied effective reproduction number (Reff) to estimate the transmissibility. Daily meteorological data from 2008 to 2017 were used to determine Spearman's correlation with reported new cases and Reff. The SEIARW model fit the data well (χ2 = 0.00046, p > 0.999). The simulation results showed that the reservoir-to-person transmission of the shigellosis route has been interrupted. The Reff would be reduced to a transmission threshold of 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–1.19) in 2035. Reducing the infectious period to 11.25 days would also decrease the value of Reff to 0.99. There was a significant correlation between new cases of shigellosis and atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and sun hours per day. The correlation coefficients, although statistically significant, were very low (<0.3). In Wuhan, China, the main transmission pattern of shigellosis is person-to-person. Meteorological factors, especially daily atmospheric pressure and temperature, may influence the epidemic of shigellosis.
The Brain Health Test-7 (BHT-7) is a revised tool from the original BHT, containing more tests about frontal lobe function. It was developed with theaim of identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia.
Here we report the validity of the BHT-7 versus the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in differentpsychiatry or neurology clinics.
Patients with memory complaints were recruited in this study from the outpatient clinic of psychiatry or neurology in 3 different kinds of hospitals. Allpatients underwent the evaluation of the BHT-7, MMSE, MoCA, and clinical dementia rating (CDR). The clinical diagnosis (normal, MCI, dementia) was made by consensus meeting, taking into account all available data.
Demographic data and the scores of the MMSE, MoCA, and BHT-7 between groups were compared. Logistic regression was adopted for analysis of optimal cutoff values, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve,and the area under the ROC curve (AUC).
We enrolled a total of 1090 subjects (normal 402, MCI 317, dementia 371); of them, 705 (64.7%) were female. There was a statistically significant differencein age, years of education, and 3 cognitive test scores among the 3 groups.
Compared with the MMSE and MoCA, the BHT-7 performed slightly betterthan MMSE and MoCA in differentiating MCI or dementia from the normalcontrols (Table 1). For BHT- 7, the cutoff point was 17 between normal andMCI, and 14 between normal and dementia. These cutoff points for BHT-7were consistent through 3 different clinical settings, but inconsistent for MMSE and MoCA. The testing time for the BHT-7 was about 5-7 minutes, shorter than that of the MMSE and MoCA.
Compared with MMSE and MoCA, the BHT-7 showed slightly better performance in differentiating normal from MCI or dementia subjects. The testing time for the BHT-7 was shorter, and its cutoff points were consistent through different outpatient clinic settings. The results support that BHT-7 is auseful cognitive screening tool for MCI or early dementia in various hospital settings.
Comparisons of the performance of BHT-7, MMSE, MoCA