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Middle infrared (~2000 to 200 cm–1 or 5 to 50 μm) data are extremely useful for compositional determination of geologic materials because this wavelength region hosts the fundamental (“Reststrahlen”) vibrational bands of most minerals. Analysis of remotely sensed data requires comparison to well-developed spectral libraries populated with a wide variety of mid-IR mineral spectra (and additional rock or meteorite spectra). Here we present the theory behind molecular vibrations of mineral structures and the simple harmonic oscillators that define them mathematically. We present dispersion theory that describes how energy travels through a crystal and how propagating energy is affected by the crystal lattice structure, specifically along the various crystal axes. The equipment required for these types of laboratory measurements (both emissivity and reflectivity) is presented as well as a discussion about how mid-IR data are affected by particle size and how related volume scattering affects spectral data. Finally, mid-IR emissivity spectra acquired in a dry, 1-atm environment are provided for 93 different minerals and meteorites. These spectra are available as ancillary data files.
While leaders in many times and places from ancient Greece to today have been called to account, it has been claimed that leaders in ancient Athens were called to account more than any other group in history. This paper surveys the distinctive ways in which Athenian accountability procedures gave the democratic people as a whole a meaningful voice in defining, revealing, and judging the misuse of office, and in holding every single official regularly and personally accountable for their use of their powers. By then assessing a drastic case of unaccountability in a certain moment of Athenian history – the rule of the Thirty in 404–403 BCE – and how accountability was ultimately imposed on them, the paper concludes with thoughts about what might deepen and restore trust in the accountability of public officials today.
In today's diverse society, health professionals require a complete understanding of how physiological, social and psychological factors impact physical wellbeing. Health Psychology in Australia provides a contemporary, relevant perspective on the unique climate in which this increasingly important area of healthcare is practised in Australia. Drawing on the expertise of the author team, this book gives students the skills to identify and evaluate health risk factors and to intervene in and manage health behaviour. Each chapter includes learning objectives, case studies with accompanying reflection questions, critical thinking activities and a detailed summary to consolidate learning. The comprehensive glossary and links to online resources solidify understanding of key concepts and ideas. Written with a focus on respectful advocacy of health promotion, Health Psychology in Australia provides psychology and allied health students with a comprehensive understanding of the role of the health psychologist as clinician, researcher, educator and client.
Can ordinary citizens in a democracy evaluate the claims of scientific experts? While a definitive answer must be case by case, some scholars have offered sharply opposed general answers: a skeptical “no” (e.g. Scott Brewer) versus an optimistic “yes, no problem” (e.g. Elizabeth Anderson). The article addresses this basic conflict, arguing that a satisfactory answer requires a first-order engagement in judging the claims of experts which both skeptics and optimists rule out in taking the issue to be one of second-order assessments only. Having argued that such first-order judgments are necessary, it then considers how they are possible, outlining a range of practices and virtues that can inform their success and likelihood, and drawing throughout on ancient Greek insights as well as contemporary social psychology and sociology of knowledge. In conclusion the ethics of democratic judgment so developed is applied to the dramatic conviction of the members of an Italian scientific risk commission in L'Aquila.