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This study treats violent actions by Buddhist groups in premodern Japan (ca. 6.-17. ces.). When Buddhism was introduced from Korea since the 6. ce., it triggered conflicts with the indigenuous beliefs. They consisted of physical war between different clans and spiritual warfare through subjugation of the local deities. Later, after Japanese Buddhism had developed into various denominations since the 8. ce., sectarian conflicts for patronage among competing Buddhist groups emerged which the state had to control. When during the late Heian period, struggles about the ownership of landed estates emerged, the aristocats employed warriors for their protection whereas monasteries guarded their manors through low ranking “evil monks”. Because they injured and killed people in order to fullfil their duties, scholar monks developed doctrinal justifications to exculpate them against critics. When during the Kamakura period new Buddhist groups emerged, the established monasteries used their monastic armees as well as the military of the state to subdue them because they threatened their economic and social basis. Finally, during the Muromachi period violent peasant uprisings of a new Buddhist group were triggered by its suppression through a monastic complex due to economic reasons, i.e. competiton concerning membership and donations.
An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars
In a previous study (Felce, de Kock and Repp, 1986), appropriate client activity was found to be considerably higher in two community homes for severely and profoundly mentally handicapped adults than in a number of institutions. Client activity was also shown to be related to the extent of staff interaction. The method of this study was replicated in a two-year follow-up to investigate whether these desirable levels of staff interaction and client activity were maintained. Client engagement in appropriate activity remained similar for five subjects but had fallen slightly for a further five. The duration of instruction given to the majority of subjects by staff had declined but so too, for a variety of reasons, had staff–client ratios. Overall, the follow-up data give a general impression of the maintenance of client activity with some subjects engaging with greater independence. However, interpretation is dependent on the role that staff–client ratio may play in determining staff performance and in particular their level of interaction with clients.
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