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There have been no studies from low- or middle-income countries to investigate the long-term impact of perinatal common mental disorders (CMD) on child educational outcomes.
To test the hypothesis that exposure to antenatal and postnatal maternal CMD would be associated independently with adverse child educational outcomes in a rural Ethiopian.
A population-based birth cohort was established in 2005/2006. Inclusion criteria were: age between 15 and 49 years, ability to speak Amharic, in the third trimester of pregnancy and resident of the health demographic surveillance site. One antenatal and nine postnatal maternal CMD assessments were conducted using a self-reporting questionnaire, validated for the local use. Child educational outcomes were obtained from the mother at T1 (2013/2014 academic year; mean age 8.5 years) and from school records at T2 (2014/2015 academic year; mean age 9.3 years).
Antenatal CMD (risk ratio (RR) = 1.06, 95% CI 1.05–1.07) and postnatal CMD (RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.06–1.09) were significantly associated with child absenteeism at T2. Exposure to repeatedly high maternal CMD scores in the preschool period was not associated with absenteeism after adjusting for antenatal and postnatal CMD. Non-enrolment at T1 (odds ratio 0.75, 95% CI 0.62–0.92) was significantly but inversely associated with postnatal maternal CMD. There was no association between maternal CMD and child academic achievement or drop-out.
Our findings support the hypothesis of a critical period for exposure to maternal CMD for adverse child outcomes and indicate that programmes to enhance regular school attendance in low-income countries need to address perinatal maternal CMD.
Despite being a global problem, little is known about the relationship between severe mental illness (SMI) and homelessness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Homeless people with SMI are an especially vulnerable population and face myriad health and social problems. In LMICs, low rates of treatment for mental illness, as well as differing family support systems and cultural responses to mental illness, may affect the causes and consequences of homelessness in people with SMI.
To conduct a systematic, scoping review addressing the question: what is known about the co-occurrence of homelessness and SMI among adults living in LMICs?
We conducted an electronic search, a manual search and we consulted with experts. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, assessed publications for eligibility and appraised study quality.
Of the 49 included publications, quality was generally low: they were characterised by poor or unclear methodology and reporting of results. A total of 7 publications presented the prevalence of SMI among homeless people; 12 presented the prevalence of homelessness among those with SMI. Only five publications described interventions for this population; only one included an evaluation component.
Evidence shows an association between homelessness and SMI in LMICs, however there is little information on the complex relationship and direction of causality between the phenomena. Existing programmes should undergo rigorous evaluation to identify key aspects required for individuals to achieve sustainable recovery. Respect for human rights should be paramount when conducting research with this population.
Depression is associated with increased mortality, however, little is known about its variation by ethnicity.
We conducted a cohort study of individuals with ICD-10 unipolar depression from secondary mental healthcare, from an ethnically diverse location in southeast London, followed for 8 years (2007–2014) linked to death certificates. Age- and sex- standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), with the population of England and Wales as a standard population were derived. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were derived through multivariable regression procedures.
Data from 20 320 individuals contributing 91 635 person-years at risk with 2366 deaths were used for analyses. SMR for all-cause mortality in depression was 2.55(95% CI 2.45–2.65), with similar trends by ethnicity. Within the cohort with unipolar depression, adjusted HR (aHRs) for all-cause mortality in ethnic minority groups relative to the White British group were 0.62(95% CI 0.53–0.74) (Black Caribbean), 0.53(95% CI 0.39–0.72) (Black African) and 0.69(95% CI 0.52–0.90) (South Asian). Male sex and alcohol/substance misuse were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk [aHR:1.94 (95% CI 1.68–2.24) and aHR:1.18 (95% CI 1.01–1.37) respectively], whereas comorbid anxiety was associated with a decreased risk [aHR: 0.72(95% CI 0.58–0.89)]. Similar associations were noted for natural-cause mortality. Alcohol/substance misuse and male sex were associated with a near-doubling in unnatural-cause mortality risk, whereas Black Caribbean individuals with depression had a reduced unnatural-cause mortality risk, relative to White British people with depression.
Although individuals with depression experience an increased mortality risk, marked heterogeneity exists by ethnicity. Research and practice should focus on addressing tractable causes underlying increased mortality in depression.
This study used data collected to describe the activity, case-load characteristics and outcome measures for all patients seen during a 6-year period.
The service reviewed 2153 patients over 6 years with referral rates and case-load characteristics comparable to those described in a previous study period. The team saw 82% of patients on the day they were referred. Data and outcome measures collected showed significant complexity in the cases seen and statistically significant improvement in Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) scores following service input.
The outcome measures used were limited, but the study supports the need for specialist liaison psychiatry for older adults (LPOA) services in the general hospital. The Framework of Outcome Measures – Liaison Psychiatry has now been introduced, but it remains unclear how valid this is in LPOA. It is of note that cost-effectiveness secondary to service input and training activities are not adequately monitored.
Older adults are among the most susceptible to sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study aimed to determine the (1) prevalence of TBI among older adults in Singapore, and (2) socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical correlates of TBI.
Data were extracted from the cross-sectional, Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study. The study included 2,565 participants aged 60 years and above (Mean = 72.75, SD = 9.54). Information on TBI, socio-demographic, and lifestyle factors were collected using participant self-report and verified with the informant report where necessary. Disability was measured using the World Health Organization – Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHO-DAS 2.0). Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.
The prevalence of TBI was 3.6%. Being female (vs. male) was found to be associated with decreased odds of having TBI. Having completed secondary education or lower (vs. tertiary education) was found to be associated with increased odds of having TBI. A history of fainting and diabetes were associated with the presence of TBI. Those with TBI were associated with higher disability scores on the WHO-DAS 2.0 than those without TBI.
The current study provides information on the prevalence and associated factors of TBI in the older adult population in Singapore. Since TBI was associated with older adults with diabetes, they must be cautioned about fall risk. Also, given the association with disability, older adults with TBI are likely to require support and rehabilitative care to ensure good quality of life.
This study assessed the prevalence and factor structure of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in a community-based sample of older adults with dementia and identified their correlates.
Data collected from 399 Singapore residents with dementia aged 60 years and above, interviewed along with a family/friend during a national survey, were used for this analysis. Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire assessed older adults’ BPSD. Other data included socio-demographics, dementia severity, cognition, chronic physical conditions, disability, and caregivers’ burden. Exploratory factor analysis assessed BPSD sub-groups, factor scores of which were used to identify socio-demographic, and clinical correlates.
Prevalence of BPSD was 67.9% and 30% of the population had experienced three or more BPSD in the past month. Two distinct and moderately correlated symptom groups representing “psychosis and behavior dysregulation” and “mood disturbance and restlessness” were identified. As factor scores for both the groups increased with older age, poor cognition and caregiver burden, the former was also related to being never married and having no formal education.
Study provides evidence of two distinct groups of BPSD and their important correlates. Clinicians treating BPSD should consider their age and cognitive impairment and be cognizant of their caregivers’ burden.
MR is a powerful modality. At its most advanced, it can be used not just to image anatomy and pathology, but to investigate organ function, to probe in vivo chemistry, and even to visualise the brain thinking. However, clinicians, technologists and scientists struggle with the study of the subject. The result is sometimes an obscurity of understanding, or a dilution of scientific truth, resulting in misconceptions. This is why MRI from Picture to Proton has achieved its reputation for practical clarity. MR is introduced as a tool, with coverage starting from the images, equipment and scanning protocols and traced back towards the underlying physics theory. With new content on quantitative MRI, MR safety, multi-band excitation, Dixon imaging, MR elastography and advanced pulse sequences, and with additional supportive materials available on the book's website, this new edition is completely revised and updated to reflect the best use of modern MR technology.