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Sex differences in symptomatology in people with psychosis have been studied extensively in recent decades. Although studies have pointed to such differences, to date there is no review that has performed a systematic search and quantitative synthesis. In this paper, we describe the protocol for a pairwise meta-analysis comparing a range of symptom outcome measures between men and women diagnosed with a psychotic spectrum disorder at different stages of the disorder (PROSPERO registration number CRD42021264942). In August 2021 we conducted systematic searches of PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Dialnet to identify observational studies that report data on symptoms for males and females separately. Two independent reviewers will conduct literature searches, select studies, extract data, assess the risk of bias and assess outcome quality. To assess the effect size of all outcome measures, we will conduct pairwise meta-analysis using random-effects models. The quality of studies will be evaluated using a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's quality assessment tool and the confidence in the results will be evaluated using the GRADE tool. Meta-regression and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. No ethical problems are foreseen. Results from this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences.
Monitoring the effectiveness of knee and hip arthroplasties could be useful at the clinical, economic, and patient levels. In Catalonia, there is currently no systematic monitoring of the different prostheses available. The aims of this study were to propose an approach for the systematic identification of knee and hip prostheses with the highest revision rates, and to identify those with the poorest outcomes.
Data recorded from January 2005 to December 2016 were considered from 53 out of the 61 public hospitals in Catalonia included in the Catalonian Arthroplasty Register (RACat). Specific prostheses were classified by joint, type, fixation, and, in total hip prostheses, the bearing surface. Prostheses with the worst outcomes were identified using a three-step approach, based on previous literature: (i) screening using Poisson models; (ii) comparison of prostheses using adjusted Cox models; and (iii) consensus-based review by a panel of orthopedic surgeons to detect possible sources of bias. After this process, selected prostheses were provisionally labeled as having the poorest outcomes. This process will be repeated periodically within the RACat to definitively classify the prostheses.
After first two steps, ten knee prostheses and eight hip prostheses were identified. After the panel discussion (third step), one knee and one hip prosthesis were excluded from the final list. The knee prosthesis was excluded because it was a unicompartmental implant, while the hip prosthesis was excluded because it was a monoblock implant. Finally, nine knee prostheses and seven hip prostheses were provisionally identified as having the worst results relative to other available prostheses. These results await confirmation in subsequent analyses.
This study contributed to the current need to identify hip and knee prostheses whose outcomes might be worse than expected. This identification could have an impact at the patient, surgeon, industry, and stakeholder levels.
The chemical stability of spent fuel will be greatly influenced by the redox potential of the near field. Presence of reductants such as iron is likely to be an important factor to maintain the original integrity of spent fuel. In this work experimental data about the influence of metallic iron (container base material) on SIMFUEL leaching behavior under simulated granite and saline repository conditions is presented. In the presence of iron uranium concentration undergoes a sharp decrease. This is much more noticeable in the experiments performed under initial oxic conditions. The effect of iron on simulated fission products of SIMFUEL is very important for the elements with high redox sensitivity such us molybdenum. On the contrary, strontium remains stable during the entire tests and it seems not be affected by changes in redox potential.
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