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Connecticut’s Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth were among the most important participants in the War for Independence, the Constitutional Convention, and the First Federal Congress. As well, both served on their state’s Superior Court, and Ellsworth was chief drafter of the Judiciary Act of 1789 and Chief Justice of the United States from 1796–1800. Their religious convictions, informed by Reformed theology, influenced their contributions to the creation of America’s constitutional order, and they represent well the 50–75% of Americans in this era who Calvinists.
From the early days of European settlement in North America, Christianity has had a profound impact on American law and culture. This volume profiles nineteen of America's most influential Christian jurists from the early colonial era to the present day. Anyone interested in American legal history and jurisprudence, the role Christianity has played throughout the nation's history, and the relationship between faith and law will enjoy this worthy and unique study. The jurists covered in this collection were pious men and women, but that does not mean they agreed on how faith should inform law. From Roger Williams and John Cotton to Antonin Scalia and Mary Ann Glendon, America's great Christian jurists have brought their faith to bear on the practice of law in different ways and to different effects.
Synthetic κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists induce dysphoric and pro-depressive effects and variations in the KOR (OPRK1) and prodynorphin (PDYN) genes have been shown to be associated with alcohol dependence. We genotyped 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PDYN and OPRK1 genes in 816 alcohol-dependent subjects and investigated their association with: (1) negative craving measured by a subscale of the Inventory of Drug Taking Situations; (2) a self-reported history of depression; (3) the intensity of depressive symptoms measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II. In addition, 13 of the 23 PDYN and OPRK1 SNPs, which were previously genotyped in a set of 1248 controls, were used to evaluate association with alcohol dependence. SNP and haplotype tests of association were performed. Analysis of a haplotype spanning the PDYN gene (rs6045784, rs910080, rs2235751, rs2281285) revealed significant association with alcohol dependence (p = 0.00079) and with negative craving (p = 0.0499). A candidate haplotype containing the PDYN rs2281285-rs1997794 SNPs that was previously associated with alcohol dependence was also associated with negative craving (p = 0.024) and alcohol dependence (p = 0.0008) in this study. A trend for association between depression severity and PDYN variation was detected. No associations of OPRK1 gene variation with alcohol dependence or other studied phenotypes were found. These findings support the hypothesis that sequence variation in the PDYN gene contributes to both alcohol dependence and the induction of negative craving in alcohol-dependent subjects.
Of all the Celtic countries, Scotland has lacked the kind of scholarly attention that has been lavished fruitfully on Wales, Ireland, Cornwall and Brittany. And yet of all of them, Scotland offers the widest range of interfaces with broader work on the cult of saints. The papers presented here cover this territory very effectively.... [the book] brings together excellent studies that successfully explore the wide ramifications of the topic. Anyone with an interest in saints' cults will want this book. DAUVIT BROUN, Professor of Scottish History, University of Glasgow. This volume examines the phenomena of the cult of saints and Marian devotion as they were manifested in Scotland, ranging from the early medieval period to the sixteenth century. It combines general surveys of the development of the study of saints in the early and later middle ages with more focused articles on particular subjects, including St Waltheof of Melrose, the obscure early medieval origins of the cult of St Munnu, the short-lived martyr cult of David, duke of Rothsay, and the Scottish saints included in the greatest liturgical compendium produced in late medieval Scotland, the Aberdeen breviary. The way in which Marian devotion permeated late medieval Scottish society is discussed in terms of the church dedications of the twelfth and thirteenth-century aristocracy, the ecclesiastical landscape of Perth, the depiction of Mary in Gaelic poetry, and the pervasive influence of the familial bond between holy mother and son in representations of the Scottish royal family. Dr Steve Boardman is Reader in History, University of Edinburgh; Eila Williamson gained her PhD from the University of Glasgow. Contributors: Helen Birkett, Steve Boardman, Rachel Butter, Thomas Owen Clancy, David Ditchburn, Audrey-Beth Fitch, Mark A. Hall, Matthew H. Hammond, Sim Innes, Alan Macquarrie
In this chapter, the focus is primarily on the problems that beset investigating saints' cults in the early medieval period, something approached also in Rachel Butter's incisive case-study of St Munnu. The Survey of Dedications to Saints in Medieval Scotland is one of the most welcome developments in such investigations. First, it will help us understand the dynamism and evolution of saints' cults during the later medieval period, a period for which there remains a great deal of work to do, and much headway to be gained in refining and opening out our understanding of medieval Scottish piety and the nexus between society and religion. Second, and more importantly for this contribution, it will help to clarify for us what we do and do not know about the later medieval position of the cult of those saints already present in the Scottish landscape in the period before the twelfth century. It has become increasingly apparent in recent studies that no real progress can be made in our understanding of early medieval saints' cults without a firm grasp of the nature of the later medieval evidence for those cults. This is especially so, given the paucity of clear documentation cited for the likes of church dedications or fair days by key secondary sources like Mackinlay's Ancient Church Dedications and Watson's Celtic Place-Names of Scotland. This chapter primarily addresses the evidence provided by one source which has had to remain largely outwith the remit of the Survey: place-name evidence.
In 1968 The Innes Review published an article by David McRoberts which was (to use a word often overused in recent years) seminal. Its influence is visible in much, indeed in almost everything, that has been written since 1968 about the Church and about religion in later medieval Scotland. The thesis which it presented was relatively straightforward. McRoberts argued that the fifteenth century witnessed a new and what he called ‘nationalist’ trend in Scottish religious observation. There were several dimensions to this development – but it was especially apparent, McRoberts argued, in the veneration of saints. Before the fifteenth century the Church had neglected Scotland's early saints; thereafter leading clergymen began to look anew at these forgotten worthies. In the earlier part of the century Prior James Haldenstone of St Andrews had coordinated a campaign to have St Duthac officially canonised. Elsewhere there were efforts to relocate the relics and to promote the cults of St Kentigern (at Glasgow and Culross), St Ninian (at Whithorn) and St Triduana (at Restalrig). We find the chronicler Walter Bower lauding St Columba and Archbishop Schevez of St Andrews mounting a search for the relics of St Palladius. This ‘devotional nationalism’ reached its culmination, according to McRoberts, in the early sixteenth century with the work of Bishop William Elphinstone and a team of collaborators in Old Aberdeen, who produced a new martyrology and a new breviary.
Munnu, or Fintan Munnu, as he is sometimes called in Scotland, is an apparently straightforward saint, with an eighth-century vita, an obit in the Annals of Ulster, an appearance in Adomnán's Vita Columbae, and a name – Mun or Mund – which appears in a distinctive form in place-names in Scotland: four Kilmuns in Argyll, and an Eilean Munde near Ballachulish in Lochaber. He is intriguing too in the survival of traces of his cult in fifteenth-century references to a keeper of his crozier, and in the surname Mac Gille Mund, evident in Argyll at least into the seventeenth century.
This cheerful opening may sound like a prelude to the cruel news that in fact Munnu is not straightforward at all – that his obit is unreliable, that the person in Vita Columbae is someone else altogether, and that Kilmun may commemorate another saint. I will indeed flag up some potential problems towards the end of this chapter but for now I am going to treat Munnu as if he were a nice simple saint, uncontaminated by overlap or confusion with other saints. And I treat his strange double name – Fintan Munnu – as a helpful aid in our attempts to track his cult. This name derives from the common name Fintan, of which there were many bearers,5 followed by an affectionate form of the same name, arrived at thus: Fintan > *Mo Finn (‘my Finn’ where the f is lenited and therefore silent) > Mun > Munnu.