This paper presents a selective review of sociological gerontology in Canada, examining where it has been, where it is, and where it could go in the future in four general areas: inequality, population aging and the social construction of crisis; family relations and caregiving; work, retirement and income security; and health, health care systems, and health policy. This review suggests that the sociology of aging has not differentiated itself by the topic studied or by its applied and empirical focus, but rather in its unique perspective that reveals the importance of social structures for the personal and private experience of aging. In doing so, sociological gerontology rejects deterministic assumptions ofinevitability. The importance of relating the personal to the public and of continuing a critical examination of existing trends will continue into the future. An additional challenge will be the generation ofnew knowledge on how to transform institutions so that they better enhance the quality oflife ofseniors, including the identification of support of family structures and community environments, as well as more appropriate health and income security policies. This also includes research on effective and appropriate means of introducing new structures and implementing new policies and programs within the context of current social institutions.