Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Ultrasound examination is now considered as part of almost every clinic setting. The creation of an image from sound is achieved in three steps: producing a sound wave, receiving echoes, and interpreting those echoes. The four different modes of ultrasound used in medical imaging are: A-mode, B-mode, M-mode and Doppler mode. The Doppler frequency shift information can be displayed graphically in various ways that include color Doppler (directional Doppler), power Doppler, and spectral (pulsed) Doppler. The different modes of Doppler waves include: Continuous-wave Doppler (CW) and Pulsed-wave Doppler (PW). The blood flow measurements are performed by calculation of velocity, calculation of absolute flow and flow waveform analysis. Despite its impressive safety record of ultrasound to date, the intensity (or acoustic output) level of ultrasound used to scan the fetus in utero has increased almost eightfold over the level that was allowed in the early 1990s.
This chapter discusses the techniques, methodology, and procedures that are highly relevant to the current practice of assisted human reproduction and sperm banking. Cryopreservation of sperm cut down the necessity of obtaining fresh sperm for subsequent assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Abundant evidence exists in literature indicating that frozen sperm are as good as fresh sperm in fertilizing oocytes and subsequent developments. The success of cryopreservation is affected by many factors including membrane permeability, amount of intracellular water, type of cryoprotectant, and the method of freezing and thawing. Four cryoprotectants that are most often used for cryopreservation of human spermatozoa are: glycerol, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, propanediol, egg yolk and buffering agents. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) practice committee recommends evaluations of potential sperm donors incorporating recent information about optimal screening and testing for sexually transmitted infections, genetic diseases, and psychological assessments.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.