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This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
We report here the fabrication and characterization of GaAs tunnel diode (TD) and ErAs nanoparticles (Nps) enhanced GaAs TD. Four GaAs TDs with different contact area were fabricated by using MOCVD. We found extremely high peak current density of ∼250A/cm2 for the TD with r=0.25mm contact area. Moreover a hysteresis loop was appeared during sweeping up and sweeping down the external voltage. A ‘vector load line model’ was proposed to explain the origin of the shape of the hysteresis loop and the onset of the bistability occurred at the intersect of the loadline and the current-voltage (I-V) curve of TD. Meanwhile, we have grown ErAs Nps on GaAs(100) surface by using MBE and succeeded in overgrowth of GaAs after ErAs deposition. GaAs(p+)/ErAs(Nps)/GaAs(n+) TDs were fabricated and characterized. We found the GaAs sample containing 70s deposition of ErAs showed the best TD behavior. No TD behavior was observed for the sample without addition of ErAs Nps, clearly indicating the strong tunneling enhancement effect from ErAs Nps.
Energy storage is a key technology for establishing a stand-alone renewable energy system. Current energy-storage technologies are, however, not suitable for such an energy system. They are cost ineffective and/or are with low energy-conversion efficiency. Hydrogen generation and storage from water by sunlight is one of these technologies. In this study, a simple concept of hydrogen generation from water by using sunlight, “concentrated photovoltaic electrochemical cell (CPEC)” is proposed. It is experimentally shown that the CPEC operates stably and achieves conversion efficiency from light to hydrogen energy of over 12%.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
We present the internal proper motion of 6.7-GHz methanol masers in S269, an Ultra Compact HII region. The maser distribution in S269 consists of several maser groups, and the spatial structure of the main groups A and B are consistent with the past VLBI image. The remarkable result of comparing the two VLBI maps is that 6.7-GHz methanol maser distribution and velocity range within each group have been kept for eight years. Angular separation between the two groups A and B increases by 3.6 mas, which corresponds to a velocity of 11.5 km s−1.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
Correlation between defect structures and light emission from Si-nanocrystal doped SiO2 films has been studied using electron spin resonance ( ESR ) and photoluminescence ( PL ) methods. The ESR analysis revealed the presence of three kinds of ESR centers in the film after annealing at above 900 °C in argon ( Ar ) atmosphere, i.e. Si dangling bond in amorphous Si cluster ( a-center: g=2.006 ), Si dangling bond at Si-nanocrystal/SiO2 interface ( Pb-center: g=2.003 ) and conduction electrons in Si-nanocrystal ( Pce-center: g=1.998 ). Moreover, visible light emission was observed in the annealed sample from the PL measurement. Both the PL intensity and the ESR signal intensity of the Pce-center were increased with an increase of annealing temperature. These results indicate that the Pce-center is strongly associated with the emission center.
We focused on detailed evaluations of properties of the ultra-thin pore-seal layer (< 3 nm-thick), such as Cu diffusion barrier property and thermal stability. Cu diffusion into dense thermal silica and porous silica low-k which are covered with the pore seal layer was evaluated using metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors under bias thermal stress (BTS). Triangular voltage sweep (TVS) measurement shows that the ultra-thin layer on dense thermal silica suppresses the drift of Cu ions. The Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB) lifetime of porous silica low-k covered with the ultra-thin pore seal layer results in a drastic increase of the capacitor lifetime with respect to the no-pore-seal control system (stable at 125 °C at least for 10000 s). Thermal decomposition of bulk material of the pore sealant was measured by thermal gravity (TG) test in nitrogen. Bulk material did not decompose through around 350 °C. The amount of ultra-thin pore seal layer fabricated on silicon wafer after thermal cycle stress in vacuum was measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Amount of pore sealant did not decrease even after 2 cycles of 20 min, at 250 °C. Those results show that the ultra-thin layer, which we propose here, has a potential as a pore seal layer for porous low-k films.
Optical properties of fully-strained wurtzite and zincblende InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures were compared to discuss the origin of exciton localization. In contrast to the hexagonal InGaN MQWs, the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of cubic InGaN MQWs showed a moderate blueshift with decreasing well thickness, L, and low-temperature PL decay time of the cubic MQWs did not depend strongly on L. The results imply that the wavefunction overlap in cubic InGaN MQWs was not reduced compared to the hexagonal ones, since they do not suffer from the electric field normal to the QW plane due either to spontaneous or piezoelectric polarization. Both MQWs exhibited a large and composition-dependent bandgap bowing, and time-resolved PL (TR-PL) signals showed a stretched-exponential decay even at room temperature. The exciton localization is considered to be an intrinsic property of InGaN.
A new fabrication method of SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) and Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) structures are presented as well as the application to high-mobility channel CMOS devices. This method, the Ge-condensation technique, consists of epitaxial growth of a SiGe layer with a low Ge fraction on an SOI substrate and successive oxidation at high temperatures, which can be incorporated in conventional CMOS processes. During the oxidation, Ge atoms are pushed out from the oxide layer and condensed in the remaining SiGe layer. The interface between the Si and SiGe layers is disappeared due to the interdiffusion of Si and Ge atoms. Eventually, an SGOI layer with a higher Ge fraction is formed on the buried oxide layer. The Ge fraction in the SGOI layer can be controlled by the oxidation time because total amount of Ge atoms in the SGOI layer is conserved throughout the oxidation process. We found that the lattice relaxation in the SGOI layer also can be controlled through the initial SiGe thickness. P- and n-type strained SOI MOSFETs, which were fabricated on relaxed SGOI substrates formed by this technique, exhibited mobility enhancement of 50% and 80%, respectively. CMOS ring oscillators comprised of the MOSFETs exhibited reduction in propagation delay of 70%-30% compared to a conventional SOI-CMOS device. Ultrathin-body strained SGOI pMOSFETs with high Ge fraction and surface channels were also fabricated by this technique. These devices exhibited hole-mobility enhancement factors up to 2.3. Furthermore, Ge-on-Insulator (GOI) structures with thicknesses less than 10 nm were realized for ultrathin body GOI-CMOS applications by using the Ge-condensation technique. In conclusion, the Ge-condensation technique is a promising technique for fabricating various types of high-mobility channel-on-insulator devices.
Magnetic tunnel junctions of Co0.9Fe0.1/SrTiO3 (STO)/ La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) with a spin-valve structure having an antiferromagnetic MnIr layer have been fabricated by sputtering. Junction magnetoresistance (MR) behavior and its dependence on the bias voltage are examined for junctions with epitaxial STO barrier formed under different sputtering conditions. Spin dependent transport measurements show that these junctions exhibit spin-valve type MR loops with an inverse (positive) MR of the ratio of 14-22 % at 4.2 K. The inverse MR observed is asymmetric with respect to the bias voltage direction. Stoichiometric STO barrier, as characterized by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, is found to result in very large asymmetric bias dependence, while the junctions with nonstoichiometric STO barrier exhibit the symmetric bias dependence. Our results suggest that the nonstoichiometry of STO barrier modifies the electronic structures of electrode/barrier interfaces, and thereby reducing the asymmetry of bias voltage dependence of junction MR.
Strained-Si MOSFET is an attractive device structure to be able to relax several fundamental limitations of CMOS scaling, because of high electron and hole mobility and compatibility with Si CMOS standard processing. In this paper, we present a new device structure including strained-Si channel, strained-SOI MOSFET, applicable to CMOS under sub-100 nm technology nodes. The main feature of this device is that thin strained-Si channel/relaxed SiGe hetero-structures are formed on buried oxides. The principle and the advantages are described in detail. The strained-SOI MOSFETs, whose electron and hole mobility is 1.6 and 1.3 times, respectively, higher than in conventional MOSFETs, have successfully been fabricated by combining the SIMOX technology with re-growth of strained Si films. We also present novel fabrication techniques to realize ultra-thin SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) virtual substrates with high Ge content, including Ge condensation due to oxidation of SGOI with lower Ge content. Strained-Si/SGOI structures with total thickness of 21 nm and Ge content of 56 % have been fabricated by oxidizing SiGe films on conventional SOI substrates and re-growing strained-Si films.
We have investigated the nanopatterning of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films in room-temperature nanoimprint lithography (RT-NIL), using a diamond nanodot mold. We have proposed the use of polysiloxane as an electron beam (EB) mask and RT-imprint resist materials. The diamond molds of cylinder dot using the RT-NIL process were fabricated with polysiloxane oxide mask in EB lithography technology. The dot in minimum diameter is 500 nm. The pitch between the dots is 2 μm, and dot has a height of about 600 nm. It was found that the optimum imprinting conditions for the RT-NIL : time from spin-coating to imprinting t1 of 1 min , pressure time t2 of 5 min, imprinting pressure P of 0.5 MPa. The imprint depth obtained after the press under their conditions was 500 nm. We carried out the RT-NIL process for the fabrication of diamond nanopit arrays, using the diamond nanodot molds that we developed. The resulting diamond nanopit arrays with 500 nm-diameter and 200 nm-depth after the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion beam etching were fabricated. The diameter of diamond nanopit arrays was in good agreement with that of the diamond nanodot mold.
Variations of thermal donors (TDs) in highly phosphorus-diffused n-type silicon wafers (diffused wafer) have been studied with deep-level transient spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage measurements. The introduction and annihilation of TDs have been performed with heat treatment at 450°C and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in the temperature range 600-900°C,respectively. In diffused floating zone-grown (FZ) silicon wafer, TDs were observed. It is thought that oxygen diffuses into FZ silicon during the diffusion process, since no TDs are generally formed in FZ silicon for the low oxygen concentration. The behavior of TDs in diffused wafer corresponded with that in oxygen-rich bulk silicon. TDs were completely annihilated by RTA at 700 and 800°C for the as-diffused wafers and the heat-treated ones at 450°C for 24 h, respectively, and the annihilation rate for the as-diffused wafers was fast, as compare to that for the heat-treated ones. This results may be caused by difference in the total concentration and cluster size of TDs.