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Transdiagnostic group cognitive-behavioral therapy (tCBT) is a delivery model that could help overcome barriers to large-scale implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy for anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of combining group tCBT with treatment-as-usual (TAU), compared to TAU, for the treatment of anxiety disorders in community-based mental health care.
In a multicenter single-blind, two-arm pragmatic superiority randomized trial, we recruited participants aged 18–65 who met DSM-5 criteria for principal diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or agoraphobia. Group tCBT consisted of 12 weekly 2 h sessions. There were no restrictions for TAU. The primary outcome measures were the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and clinician severity rating from the Anxiety and Related Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-5 (ADIS-5) for the principal anxiety disorder at post-treatment, with intention-to-treat analysis.
A total of 231 participants were randomized to either tCBT + TAU (117) or TAU (114), with outcome data available for, respectively, 95 and 106. Results of the mixed-effects regression models showed superior improvement at post-treatment for participants in tCBT + TAU, compared to TAU, for BAI [p < 0.001; unadjusted post-treatment mean (s.d.): 13.20 (9.13) v. 20.85 (10.96), Cohen's d = 0.76] and ADIS-5 [p < 0.001; 3.27 (2.19) v. 4.93 (2.00), Cohen's d = 0.79].
Our findings suggest that the addition of group tCBT into usual care can reduce symptom severity in patients with anxiety disorders, and support tCBT dissemination in routine community-based care.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
To determine nutritional adequacy of school lunch and to assess the impact of food waste on nutrient intake of primary school children.
The weighing method was used for evaluating initial servings and plate waste for lunch. Energy and nutritional content of meals served, consumed and wasted were estimated using the software Food Processor Plus. The mean nutritional value of food served and consumed, was compared with dietary guidelines.
Portuguese public primary schools in the city of Porto.
All 525 fourth-grade children, aged from 9 to 10 years old, attending to 21 public primary schools.
Overall, school lunches served did not meet the dietary guidelines for energy and nutrients, as only 12.5% of the evaluated meals were adequate for energy, 33.5% for proteins, 11.9% for carbohydrates and 57.1% for lipids. The majority of meals served were below the age-specific lower limit, namely for energy (83.7%) and carbohydrates (86.8%). The only exception, also unbalanced, was observed for proteins, as 42.4% of lunches served exceeded the recommended upper limit. Furthermore, lunches served and consumed by children did not meet the dietary guidelines for fibre and for the micronutrients evaluated.
Children wasted 26% of the calories provided in lunches, corresponding to 91.5kcal, 25% of proteins and 29% of carbohydrates supplied.
The lunches served and consumed by children at school canteens failed to meet nutritional standards. These results are not only a consequence of inadequate food portions served but also a result of the high plate waste values observed.
Clostridioidesdifficile infection rates from 7 facilities that used nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) alone for 12 months then switched to NAAT plus toxin enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and reported the latter result for 12 months were compared to 70 facilities that used NAAT alone for all 24 months. There was no significant difference in rates between facility groups over the first 12 months (P = .21, linear regression), but we detected a decrease in rates for the facilities that changed to NAAT+EIA (P < .0001).
The aim of this study was to assess body shape trajectories in childhood and midlife in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer (BC) in a Mediterranean cohort.
The ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) Project is a dynamic prospective cohort study of university graduates initiated in 1999. With a group-based modelling approach, we assessed body shape trajectories from age 5 to 40 years. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for BC after the age of 40 years according to the body shape trajectory.
City of Pamplona, in the North of Spain.
6498 women with a mean age of 40 years (sd 9).
We identified four distinct body shape trajectories (‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ (19·9 %), ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ (53 %), ‘childhood heavy-midlife stable’ (21 %) and ‘childhood heavy-midlife increase’ (6·1 %)). Among 54 978 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed eighty-two incident cases of BC. Women in the ‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ group showed a higher risk of BC (HR = 1·84, 95 % CI 1·11, 3·04) compared with women in the ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ category. This association was stronger for postmenopausal BC (HR = 2·42, 95 % CI 1·07, 5·48).
Our results suggest a role for lifetime adiposity in breast carcinogenesis.
Despite a growing understanding of disorders of consciousness following severe brain injury, the association between long-term impairment of consciousness, spontaneous brain oscillations, and underlying subcortical damage, and the ability of such information to aid patient diagnosis, remains incomplete.
Cross-sectional observational sample of 116 patients with a disorder of consciousness secondary to brain injury, collected prospectively at a tertiary center between 2011 and 2013. Multimodal analyses relating clinical measures of impairment, electroencephalographic measures of spontaneous brain activity, and magnetic resonance imaging data of subcortical atrophy were conducted in 2018.
In the final analyzed sample of 61 patients, systematic associations were found between electroencephalographic power spectra and subcortical damage. Specifically, the ratio of beta-to-delta relative power was negatively associated with greater atrophy in regions of the bilateral thalamus and globus pallidus (both left > right) previously shown to be preferentially atrophied in chronic disorders of consciousness. Power spectrum total density was also negatively associated with widespread atrophy in regions of the left globus pallidus, right caudate, and in the brainstem. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of demographics, encephalographic, and imaging data in an analytic framework can be employed to aid behavioral diagnosis.
These results ground, for the first time, electroencephalographic presentation detected with routine clinical techniques in the underlying brain pathology of disorders of consciousness and demonstrate how multimodal combination of clinical, electroencephalographic, and imaging data can be employed in potentially mitigating the high rates of misdiagnosis typical of this patient cohort.
The study of electronic structure of materials is at a momentous stage, with new computational methods and advances in basic theory. Many properties of materials can be determined from the fundamental equations, and electronic structure theory is now an integral part of research in physics, chemistry, materials science and other fields. This book provides a unified exposition of the theory and methods, with emphasis on understanding each essential component. New in the second edition are recent advances in density functional theory, an introduction to Berry phases and topological insulators explained in terms of elementary band theory, and many new examples of applications. Graduate students and research scientists will find careful explanations with references to original papers, pertinent reviews, and accessible books. Each chapter includes a short list of the most relevant works and exercises that reveal salient points and challenge the reader.