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To assess the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and other energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods in two Southern low-income communities targeted by the Balance Calories Initiative, a campaign by the top-three American beverage companies intended to reduce the consumption of sugary beverages by 20 % over 10 years.
We conducted self-administered intercept surveys in front of food retail outlets between August and November 2016. We recruited adults with children <18 years living at home and adolescents aged 10–17 years with parental consent.
Retail food outlets in Mississippi and Alabama, USA.
Adults (n 11 311) and adolescents (n 3460).
The percentage of high SSB consumers (≥4 servings/d) was 40·9 % among adult males, 32·3 % among adult females, 43·0 % among adolescent males and 34·4 % among adolescent females (male – female difference, P < 0·0001). In aggregate, respondents also reported consuming a mean of 3 servings of salty snacks, cookies and/or candy in the past 24 h, with adolescent males reporting 4 servings.
SSB should be a primary target of future interventions to improve dietary intake, but EDNP foods likely contribute as many daily kilojoules as SSB among this population. Future campaigns should aim to limit the consumption of all EDNP foods.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
We aimed to explore the range of stakeholders’ perceptions of the Balance Calories Initiative (BCI), under which the American Beverage Association pledged to decrease per capita US consumption of beverage energy by 20 % by 2025.
Semi-structured cross-sectional interviews were conducted in 2017.
Participants were recruited from communities targeted by the BCI (Montgomery, AL; North Mississippi Delta, MS; Eastern Los Angeles, CA).
A total of thirty-three parents and thirty-eight youths aged 10–17 years were recruited through youth-serving organizations, street intercept and snowball sampling; sixteen store/restaurant managers were recruited at businesses. Participants were asked about their awareness of the BCI. Parents and youths were asked to ‘think aloud’ as they viewed BCI messages (e.g. ‘Balance What You Eat, Drink, and Do’) and managers were asked about beverage marketing.
Twelve parents and twenty-four youths had seen BCI messages; only four managers were aware of the BCI. Many parents and youths showed some misunderstanding of BCI messages (e.g. that they should drink more sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) or they needed to equalize healthy and unhealthy beverage intake). Only one manager had communicated with beverage companies about the BCI.
We found mixed comprehension and low awareness of BCI messages in communities targeted by the American Beverage Association for reduced SSB consumption. Industry self-regulation attempts to reduce SSB consumption may have limited effectiveness if stakeholder input is not addressed. Public health practitioners should be aware of the need to address youths’ and parents’ misunderstandings about SSB consumption, especially in BCI-targeted communities.
Bankruptcy is a precise legal process defining, ex ante, the rules for allocation of assets when debtors fail to repay their legally constituted debts. Ultimately, these rules determine willingness to lend and to borrow, and thus economic growth. In 1706, Parliament in England passed a bankruptcy statute that allowed, for the first time, bankrupts to exit the state of bankruptcy prior to full repayment of all debts. This represented a fundamental change in English bankruptcy rules: creditors could now choose to discharge a bankrupt. Obviously, bankrupts benefitted from such a discharge, but creditors could also benefit from greater asset revelation. We document that discharge was quickly adopted, and estimate that many bankrupts received a second chance in business.
Culturally linked family influences during adolescence are important predictors of health and well-being for Latino youth, yet few studies have examined whether these familial influences are associated with indicators of typical physiological stress processes. Following a cultural neurobiology framework, we examined the role of family in the everyday lives of Latino adolescents (N = 209; Mage = 18.10; 85.1% Mexican descent; 64.4% female) by investigating familism values and perceptions of parent support as well as daily family assistance behaviors in relation to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis diurnal patterns, indexed by salivary cortisol five times a day for 3 weekdays. Three-level growth curve analyses revealed that perceptions of parental support were associated with greater cortisol awakening responses, whereas familism values were not associated with diurnal cortisol patterns. In day-to-day analyses, assisting family during the day (compared to not assisting family) was associated with lower waking cortisol levels and flatter diurnal slopes the next day. Our findings highlight the dynamic associations and multiple time courses between cultural values and behaviors, daily experiences, and physiological stress processes for Latino adolescents. Further, we identified important cultural risk and promotive factors associated with physiological regulation in daily life and potential pathways toward health outcomes in adulthood.
To examine the quality of life (QOL) of parents of children with a specific mental disorder (any age).
Relevant articles were searched using different databases. Articles were included that compared the QOL of parents with mentally-ill children to parents of healthy controls or norm values or provided the required data for this comparison. A meta-analysis was conducted to obtain an overall mean effect size estimate. Additional analyses were performed to assess publication bias and moderation.
Twenty-six out of 10 548 articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Most of these studies focused on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder, used clinical samples that mainly included males and young children and studied the QOL of mothers. The meta-analysis revealed that parents of mentally-ill children are experiencing a clinically relevant reduction in their QOL relative to parents of healthy children and norm values (g = −0.66).
The compromised QOL of parents of mentally-ill children needs to be considered and addressed by health professionals who are in contact with them. The paper provides insights into existing research gaps and suggests improvements for subsequent work.
In this article, we report low-temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations carried out on solution processed three-layer inverted solar cell structures: PC61BM/CH3NH3PbI3/PEDOT:PSS/Glass, where PC61BM and PEDOT:PSS act as electron and hole transport layers, respectively. ESR measurements were conducted on ex-situ light (1 Sun) illuminated samples. We find two distinct ESR spectra. First ESR spectra resembles a typical powder pattern, associated with gx = gy = 4.2; gz = 9.2, found to be originated from Fe3+ extrinsic impurity located in the glass substrate. Second ESR spectra contains a broad (peak-to-peak line width ∼ 10 G) and intense ESR signal appearing at g = 2.008; and a weak, partly overlapped, but much narrower (peak-to-peak line width ∼ 4 G) ESR signal at g = 2.0022. Both sets of ESR spectra degrade in intensity upon light illumination. The latter two signals were found to stem from light-induced silicon dangling bonds and oxygen vacancies, respectively. Our controlled measurements confirm that these centers were generated during UV-ozone treatment of the glass substrate –a necessary step to be performed before PEDOT:PSS is spin coated. This work forms a significant step in understanding the light-induced- as well as extrinsic defects in perovskite solar cell materials.
We have studied the structural and morphological properties on the pyrochlore (Er2-x Srx)Ru2O6 system, for x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.15. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by solid-state reaction (SR) and sol-gel acrylamide polymerization (SGAP). Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to follow the thermal transformations such as reagents decomposition, phase transformation, chemical stability, and volatilization of organic material of samples. The reagents and synthesized products by the different methods of synthesis were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). All samples crystallize Er2Ru2O6 PDF (72-7620) in the cubic unit cell with Fd
m (No. 227) space group and form a solid solution up to x = 0.15. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows considerable variations and similitudes in sizes, very few phases and shapes of polycrystals can be observed. Polycrystalline samples prepared by solid-state reaction (SR) present a grain size varies between 77 nm to 250 nm.
The Spanish National Network (REDETS) is a group of eight agencies, units and services, depending on National and Regional Governments that coordinate their work within a common methodological framework, guided by the principles of mutual recognition and cooperation. The necessity of considering a Quality Management System has been detected and, consequently, a common tool for all the members needs to be developed. We describe in this study the process to achieve that goal.
Based on both a review of previous literature and the proposal for a self-evaluating tool, a group of experts from each agency through consensus have developed a tool for self-evaluation in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies. Through the structure described in the handbook of the Andalusian Agency for Healthcare Quality (ACSA), each standard should have a statement or proposal that needs to also include evidence or good practices, and the corresponding evaluation questions. In separate workgroups, the definition of these proposals, evidence and evaluation questions were developed. One face-to-face meeting and two meetings via teleconference were necessary to achieve a final document with all the quality standards.
From a proposed structure of sixty-six standards, the titles, definitions, statements and evidence as well as good practices and evaluation questions were established in workgroups with consensus among all of the members (1 - 3). The final version of the self-assessment tool was composed of sixty-eight standards, grouped in twelve quality criteria structured in four dimensions: I Responsibility, II Clients and Stakeholders, III Production Process, and IV Resources.
Quality management requires an evaluation tool and this version, based on a systematic review and consensus, is a useful and practical instrument for developing a handbook by each member of REDETS. An online version of the tool is in process of development.
Mugil liza is distributed along the western Atlantic coast. It is a commercially exploited species in Argentina, supporting a small-scale fishery conducted by an artisanal fleet. Age determination of fishes constitutes an important key issue for fishery management. The age, growth and recruitment of M. liza juveniles in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon and Las Brusquitas creek (Buenos Aires, Argentina), were estimated by means of the analysis of the sagittal otoliths of fish collected during January to December of 2014. Ages were estimated by counting and measuring daily growth increments in otoliths under a light microscope. A total of 735 specimens ranging from 19 to 71.5 mm SL and from 67 to 212 days age was analysed. Lengths at previous ages were determined by back-calculation, a linear growth model was fitted to the back-calculated data: SL = 0.2468 + 2.0516; R2 = 0.9945. Two peaks of recruiters were observed from February to March, and from October to November in 2014. Mean ages in days of Querimana and juveniles at the recruitment time were 84.07 ± 14.43 days and 87.56 ± 19.51 days, respectively. The hatching dates of specimens showed two spawning seasons. One was from December 2013 to January 2014, and the second one from July to August 2014. The assessment carried on this work generated age determination values that support previous findings, contributing to make a more accurate description of the life-history model currently used. In addition, valuable information has been generated to give better advice for improving the management of the fishery resource.
Previous reviews suggest there is minimal evidence for an association between duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and neurocognition. This is based on tallied findings of studies with small samples and neurocognition viewed as a single construct. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the association between DUP and individual neurocognitive domains and tests in first-episode psychosis (FEP).
MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Forty-three studies involving 4647 FEP patients were included. For studies providing correlations between DUP and neurocognition, 12 separate meta-analyses were performed based on neurocognitive domains/indices. The influence of demographic/clinical variables was tested using weighted linear meta-regression analyses.
The relationship between DUP and most neurocognitive domains/indices was not significant. Longer DUP was associated with a larger cognitive deterioration index, i.e. current minus premorbid intellectual functioning (N = 4; mean ES −0.213, 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.344 to −0.074), p = 0.003). Findings were homogeneous, with no evidence of publication bias or significant influence from moderators. For studies providing mean and standard deviations for neurocognitive measures and DUP, 20 meta-regressions were performed on individual neurocognitive tests. One significant finding emerged showing that longer DUP was associated with fewer Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-perseverative errors (mean ES −0.031, 95% CI (−0.048 to −0.013), p < 0.001). Exploratory meta-regressions in studies with mean DUP <360 days showed longer DUP was significantly associated with poorer performance on Trail Making Test A and B and higher Full-Scale IQ.
There may not be a generalised association between DUP and neurocognition, however, specific cognitive functions may be associated with longer DUP or delayed help-seeking.
It is known that some forage trees have potential defaunating capacity, as rumen protozoa population is reduced when ruminant are feed with them (Odenyo et al., 1997ª,b). The effect has been attributed to saponins (Diaz et al., 1992) and tannins (Odenyo et al., 1997a,b). It is also known that PEG binds to tannins and has been used to reduce the deleterious effect found in animals feed tanniferous trees (Makkar et al., 1998). However, to our knowledge it has not been studied if using PEG to increase digestibility will, on the other hand, affect the defaunating capacity of the tree. The objective of the present study was to develop a simple technique to screen forage trees for defaunation capacity and to assess if PEG could be used to overcome this effect.
Forage trees are commonly use for livestock feeding in the tropics. It is known that some species can affect the rumen protozoa population (Odenyo et al., 1997). However, little is known about the potential effect upon rumen protozoa of several species which are also use as feed in tropical systems. The objective of the experiment was to assess the defaunating capacity of forage trees. In companion reports (Monforte et al., 2005) we reported plants with a potential defaunating effect as evaluated under an in vitro batch culture system (Sandoval et al., 2005). Here we present those plants which did not have or had low effect on protozoa population in an in vitro culture.
Rumen protozoa population is reduced when ruminant are feed with foliage from some tropical trees an effect attributed to both saponins (Diaz et al., 1992) and tannins (Odenyo et al., 1997a). As PEG binds to tannins, it has been used to reduce its deleterious effect in animals feed tanniferous trees (Makkar et al., 1998). In a companion summary (Monforte et al., 2005) we showed that using PEG the defaunating capacity of a tanniferous tree is reduced. The objective of the present study was to assess if adding PEG to a protozoa culture will help to separate the tannin and saponin effect upon the protozoa population.
During steam treatment of lignocellulosic materials lignin is depolymerised (Zahedifar, 1996) to lower molecular weight phenolic compounds. Those phenolics may have protein precipitating capacity (PPC) due to bearing some hydroxyl groups on their molecule (Kawamoto et al, 1992) as do some other phenolics like tannins. Protein precipitating capacity of tannins may have a positive effect in ruminants by protecting proteins from microbial degradation in the rumen. The aim of this study was to assess the PPC of the phenolic compounds extracted from steam-treated wheat straw (STWS) and possible use of them to protect protein from rumen microbial degradation.