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As part of a multidisciplinary approach to study the relationship of viruses to the etiology of human prostate cancer, 42 (34 cases of cancer, and 8 cases of benign hyperplasia) specimens of prostate tumors have been examined by electron microscopy. Preliminary results of this ultrastructural study have been reported.
Intracisternal 150-200 nm viruslike particles (Figs. 1a,b) were found in epithelial cells of five cases of prostatic cancer. The particles were also seen budding from the cisternal walls (Fig. 2a). Some particles show two inner concentric layers (Figs. 2a,b) or an electron dense core (Figs. 1a,b). Dumbbellshaped particles (Fig. 2c) and elongated, probably virus-related structures (Fig. 2d) were also observed.
In parrallel with studies on human tissues, prostatic glands of normal young (6 weeks old) and adult (1 year old) mice from the high mammary cancer strains RIII/Dm, C3H/Dm and A/Dm and from C57/BL/6/Dm low mammary cancer strain have been examined to determine if prostate was a potential source of transmissible oncornaviruses in mice.
Few immunoelectron microscopic studies have been carried out in which sera of mice bearing mammary tumors were tested for the presence of naturally occurring antibodies to MMTV. In one study it was reported that sera of mice with spontaneous mammary tumors did not contain antibodies to MMTV tested by the direct immunoferritin method. It was recently reported that sera of mice bearing spontaneous mammary tumors and at least some tumor- free mice possess antibodies to MMTV which can be demonstrated by the indirect immunoperoxidase procedure. The present study was undertaken to determine (i) if naturally occurring serum antibodies to MMTV could be detected using the indirect immunoferritin method, (ii) the distribution of such antibodies in various strains of inbred mice and(iii) the degree to which immunoferritin results correlate with results derived from the same sera tested by fixed immunofluorescence.
Many patients with depression mention sudden short “mood swings” (MI) when asked. MI is distressing but little is known about its relationship to personality disorders, depression and suicidal thoughts.
To determine the relationship between mood instability (MI), neuroticism, and suicidal thoughts.
To deconstruct the concept of neuroticism to determine whether MI is an important component. To determine whether MI predicts suicidal thoughts.
129 patients with Major Depression were interviewed with the MINI diagnostic interview. They also completed the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Affective Lability Scale (ALS), Beck Suicide Scale (BSS) and 5 questions describing mood swings and its effects on behaviour.
In a regression analysis with the BSS as the dependent variable, with age and sex controlled, and all of the other variables entered, only the BDI (p < 0.001) and the ALS (p < 0.01) were significant predictors. In an exploratory factor analysis of the ENS, 3 main factors (53% of variance) emerged. 2 of the factors consisted of mild anxiety and depression symptoms. The third factor (16% variance) was a mood instability factor. The ALS and the ENS both correlated with the 5 questions describing mood swings, but the correlations with the ALS were stronger.
Mood Instability is the unique component of neuroticism. MI (ALS) predicts suicidal thoughts along with the broad concept of depression (BDI). In this model, neuroticism (ENS) is not a predictor.
The literature indicates that most patients with Major Depression mention sudden short “mood swings” (MI) when asked. MI is known to be distressing but little is known about the treatment.
To determine whether MI changes with community treatment of depression.
To study changes in MI with 3-6 months of treatment for depression in patients with Major Depression and complaints of MI.
34 patients with Major Depression and complaints of “mood swings” were recruited from 4 psychiatric practices. They were interviewed with the MINI diagnostic interview and the Mood Disorders Questionnaire. They completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Trait Form (STAI-T), and Visual Analogue Scales for Depressed Mood (VAS) and Anxious Mood twice a day for a week. The Mean Square Successive Difference Statistic (MSSD) was calculated from the VAS readings. The BDI, STAI-T, and VAS were repeated after 6 months of treatment.
25/34 patients reported past hypomania. Most patients were treated with a combination of antidepressants and mood stabilizers. The BDI and STAI-T scores improved with treatment. There was no overall change in depressed and anxious MI. Change in Depressed MI and Anxiety MI correlates with change in BDI from T1 to T2
Anxiety and depression improved with treatment as expected. Change in MI is inconsistent. Research into medications and psychosocial treatments that improve MI is needed and this will probably improve depression treatment outcome.
The effects of depression and worry on the pregnant woman and her unborn baby are an increasing concern. Treatment can decrease harmful symptoms, but pregnant women and careproviders are often reluctant to use medications. Therefore, we need research of non-pharmacologic treatment options.
We invited pregnant women to participate in an 8-week therapy group (either mindfulness-based (MB) or interpersonal therapy (IT)) facilitated by an experienced psychologist. We collected depression, worry, and sociodemographic data on admission to the group, at the end of the group, and again one month postpartum. We subsequently matched and compared the women to 60 women who had participated in a longitudinal study of perinatal depression (age, gestation, marital status, education, medications) from the same community. We wanted to know if: 1) participating in a therapy group decreases depression and worry over the course of pregnancy into the postpartum? and 2) there was a significant change in depression, stress, and worry symptoms for the treatment group compared to a control group?
Data were available on 39 women who had completed 6 groups (4 MB and 2 IT). Women who participated in either group showed significant decreases in depression (p<0.001) and worry scores (p<0.001) compared to control group. Women in the MB groups complained of less stress postpartum than the IT group, otherwise the groups were similar. Women who were unmarried had significantly higher depression scores (p<0.0001).
In summary, participating in relaxation therapy groups can significantly lessen depression and worry symptoms over pregnancy and into the postpartum.
We recently reported (EPA 2011) that one factor of the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (EPI-N) represents Mood Instability (MI) that was a significant predictor of suicidal thoughts.
To increase our understanding of MI in psychological distress we examined a national sample with longitudinal follow-up:
1. To determine whether factor analysis of the EPI-N scale yields a MI factor.
2. To determine whether the MI factor predicts psychological well-being at follow-up.
British Health and Lifestyle survey (1984) (N = 6,124) individuals that completed both of the following questionnaires. 3,232 individuals were followed in 1991–92.
Eysenck Personality Inventory consists of 57 items that includes the EPI-N with 24 items. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is a 30-item scale used to measure psychological distress in the community.
The EPI-N was factor analyzed and the extracted factors were entered as predictors of GHQ (1991) in a linear regression model, while controlling for baseline (1984) GHQ score and important physical health and socio-demographic variables.
We replicated the 3 factors of the EPI-N, the second factor represented MI. The other two factors represented mild symptoms of anxiety and depression. The 3 EPI-N factors (Including the MI factor), GHQ, hypertension and forced expiratory volume (1984) predicted GHQ (1991). Age, sex, marital status, occupational class, and household income were not predictors.
MI is the salient and distinct feature of neuroticism. MI may be a more clinically and empirically useful concept than “neuroticism” and is a fertile subject for clinical and basic research.
Most people who commit suicide suffer from depression, but diagnostic categories and known personal and demographic factors do not adequately capture the distress that leads people to kill themselves. Mood Instability (MI) refers to sudden unpredictable fluctuations in mood often occurring within a day.
To determine whether MI predicts suicidal thoughts.
Hypothesis: That MI will predict suicidal thoughts even when negative affect (depression, anxiety, anger) are controlled.
Data from the Dutch Imigrant panel of the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences (LISS-I) (N = 1686) were used. MI was assessed with 7 items from the International Personality Item Pool of Big Five Indicators. The Chronbach's alpha was 0.86. Suicidal thoughts were assessed by a single question referring to the past week. Depression, anxiety and anger were represented by 21 items derived by factor analysis from the 31-item Emotional Expressiveness Module. Odds ratios using logistic regression modeling were calculated, adjusting for negative affect, alcohol and substance abuse, and demographic variables (age, sex, income).
MI predicts suicidal thoughts (Males OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02-1.28 and females OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00-1.23) along with negative affect. There was no interaction between MI and negative affect.
MI has been relatively neglected as a predictor of suicidal thoughts. It is likely that the unpredictable, sudden, severe descents in mood are particularly distressing and contribute to the feeling that life is intolerable. MI requires more attention in the assessment and treatment of suicide risk.
Perinatal women undergo changes in their weight and shape, eating problems such as dieting, binge eating, and vomiting/purging may be expected to further stress the pregnant woman or contribute to perinatal anxiety and depression. the limited reports of studies comparing Aboriginal and nonAboriginal women have shown little difference in eating disorders between the two groups.
In a longitudinal study of depression and its correlates in socially high-risk, perinatal women, we also collected data about diet, binge and vomiting/purge behaviours. We were interested in understanding more about these eating problems and their association with perinatal health. Descriptive, bivariate and regression analyses were done.
Data were available on 283 women, 60% of whom were Aboriginal. the average age was 22.4 years and gestation was 15.4 weeks at onset of the study. Most women (84%) stated that they had no history of eating problems. Women who engaged in one eating problem behavior were significantly more likely to engage in another. NonAboriginal women were significantly more likely to report dieting, binging, or vomiting/purging (p < 0.0001). Overall, eating problems were associated with depression, mood swings, history of physical and sexual abuse, stress and recreational drug use. Women with eating problems were more likely to have gestational hypertension than those without, but confirming the literature, there were no other differences in pregnancy or birth outcomes.
NonAboriginal perinatal women experience significantly more eating problems, but Aboriginal women with a history of depression, abuse, stress and drug use are at increased risk for eating problems.
Impulsivity is a frequently used explanation for acting without apparent forethought. Mood instability (MI) describes frequent repeated shifts in mood, often within a day. Both impulsivity and MI are related to depression.
We used data from the 1984/1991 British Health and Lifestyle Survey to examine relationships between MI, impulsivity, and depression.
Hypothesis: 1) both MI and impulsivity would be related to current and future depression, and 2) when MI was accounted for, impulsivity and depression would be unrelated.
Latent variables representing MI and impulsivity were derived from the Eysenck Personality Inventory neuroticism and extraversion subscales respectively, and a depression latent variable was derived from the General Health Questionnaire, by using factor analysis. Structural equation modelling was used to determine if impulsivity was related to depression after MI was accounted for.
Cross-sectionally, the correlation between impulsivity and depression (r = 0.22, p<0.001) became trivial in size (r = .05, p < .01) after the correlation between MI and impulsivity (r = 0.50, p<0.001) was removed from the structural model. Longitudinally, impulsivity no longer predicted future depression (β = −.04, p = .16) after MI was added to the structural model. These results indicate that any significant relationship between impulsivity and depression disappears when MI is considered.
The implication is that research and therapy might be more productively directed at MI instead of impulsivity.
Further research is still needed to demonstrate the benefits of animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for specific participant profiles, such as children with behavioural disorders.
We wanted to find out if AAT could be considered an efficient therapeutic strategy for the treatment of children with behavioural disorders.
We wanted to study the effects of a preestablished AAT program on the behaviour of children with emotional and behavioural issues in 6 different reception centres for children under government guardianship.
Forty-five children (12 to 17 years old) with emotional and behavioural issues participated in a 14-session AAT program. Behavioural measures were those routinely scored as part of therapy; an observational report of 3 different problematic behaviours (such as impulsivity, lack of social skills or lack of personal recognition) was made twice a week for each child (with a score of frequency and intensity). A pre- and post-treatment “global behaviour score” was calculated for each child, as an average value of the 3 problematic behaviours measured during the month pre-treatment and the month post-treatment.
The 45 participants attended, on average, 72.8% of AAT sessions. Independent behaviour scores differed between the pre- and post-intervention evaluations (n = 135 behaviours) (Wilcoxon test; P < 0.0001). Based on the global behaviour score for each child (n = 45), significant change was found between pre- and post-intervention evaluations (Wilcoxon test; P = 0.0011).
Our results suggest AAT could be a beneficial intervention for children with behavioural issues in terms of program adherence and behaviour improvement.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The late Miocene is a time of strong environmental change in SW Asia. Himalayan foreland stable isotope data show a shift in the dominant vegetation of the flood plains away from trees and shrubs towards more C4 grasslands at a time when oceanic upwelling increased along the Oman margin. We present integrated geochemical and colour spectral records from International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1456 in the eastern Arabian Sea to reconstruct changing chemical weathering and erosion, as well as relative humidity during this climatic transition. Increasing hematite/goethite ratios derived from spectral data are consistent with long-term drying after c. 7.7 Ma. Times of dry conditions are largely associated with weaker chemical alteration measured by K/Rb and reduced coarse clastic flux, constrained by Si/Al and Zr/Al. A temporary phase of increased humidity from 6.3 to 5.95 Ma shows a reversal to stronger weathering and erosion. Wetter conditions can result in both more and less alteration due to the nonlinear relationship between weathering rates, precipitation and sediment transport times. Trends in relative aridity do not follow existing palaeoceanographic records and are not apparently linked to changes in Tibetan or Himalayan elevation, but more closely correlate with global cooling. An apparent opposing trend in the humidity evolution in the Indus compared to southern China, as tracked by spectrally estimated hematite/goethite, likely reflects differences in the topography in the Indus compared to the Pearl River drainage basins, as well as the generally wetter climate in southern China.
Obtaining geochemical profiles using X-ray fluorescent (XRF) techniques has become a standard procedure in many sediment core studies. The resulting datasets are not only important tools for palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanographic reconstructions, but also for stratigraphic correlation. The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) has therefore recently introduced shipboard application of a handheld XRF device, making geochemical data directly available to the science party. In all XRF scanning techniques, the physical properties of wet core halves cause substantial analytical deviations. In order to obtain estimates of element concentrations (e.g. for quantitative analyses of fluxes or mass-balance calculations), a calibration of the scanning data is required. We test whether results from the handheld XRF analysis on discrete samples are suitable for calibrating scanning data. Log-ratios with Ca as a common denominator were calculated. The comparison between the handheld device and conventional measurements show that the latter provide high-quality data describing Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb and Sr content (R2 compared with conventional measurements: ln(Al/Ca) = 0.99, ln(Si/Ca) = 0.98, ln(K/Ca) = 0.99, ln(Ti/Ca) = 0.99, ln(Mn/Ca) = 0.99, ln(Fe/Ca) = 0.99, ln(Zn/Ca) = 0.99 and ln(Sr/Ca) = 0.99). Our results imply that discrete measurements using the shipboard handheld analyser are suitable for the calibration of XRF scanning data. Our test was performed on downcore sediments from IODP Expedition 355 that display a wide variety of lithologies of both terrestrial and marine origin. The implication is that our findings are valid on a general scale and that shipboard handheld XRF analysis on discrete samples should be used for calibrating XRF scanning data.
To modify the non-porous surface membrane of a tissue-engineered laryngeal scaffold to allow effective cell entry.
The mechanical properties, surface topography and chemistry of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane were characterised. A laser technique introduced surface perforations. Micro computed tomography generated porosity data. Scaffolds were seeded with cells, investigated histologically and proliferation studied. Incubation and time effects were assessed.
Laser cutting perforated the polymer, connecting the substructure with the ex-scaffold environment and increasing porosity (porous, non-perforated = 87.9 per cent; porous, laser-perforated at intensities 3 = 96.4 per cent and 6 = 89.5 per cent). Cellular studies confirmed improved cell viability. Histology showed cells adherent to the scaffold surface and cells within perforations, and indicated that cells migrated into the scaffolds. After 15 days of incubation, scanning electron microscopy revealed an 11 per cent reduction in pore diameter, correlating with a decrease in Young's modulus.
Introducing surface perforations presents a viable method of improving polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane as a tissue-engineered scaffold.
We investigate self-similar sign-changing solutions to the thin-film equation, ht = −(|h|nhxxx)x, on the semi-infinite domain x ≥ 0 with zero-pressure-type boundary conditions h = hxx = 0 imposed at the origin. In particular, we identify classes of first- and second-kind compactly supported self-similar solutions (with a free-boundary x = s(t) = Ltβ) and consider how these solutions depend on the mobility exponent n; multiple solutions can exist with the same number of sign changes. For n = 0, we also construct first-kind self-similar solutions on the entire half-line x ≥ 0 and show that they act as limiting cases for sequences of compactly supported solutions in the limit of infinitely many sign changes. In addition, at n = 1, we highlight accumulation point-like behaviour of sign-changes local to the moving interface x = s(t). We conclude with a numerical investigation of solutions to the full time-dependent partial differential equation (based on a non-local regularisation of the mobility coefficient) and discuss the computational results in relation to the self-similar solutions.
Neuroticism has often been linked to suicidal thoughts and behaviour.
To examine whether neuroticism is associated with suicide deaths after adjusting for known risks.
UK Biobank participants (n = 389 365) were assessed for neuroticism as well as social, demographic and health-related variables at study entry and followed for up to 10 years. Suicide risk was modelled using Cox regression stratified by gender.
Neuroticism increased the risk of suicide in both men (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.09–1.22) and women (HR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.27). In a subsample who were assessed for mood disorders, neuroticism remained a significant predictor for women (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03–1.51) but not for men.
Screening and therapeutic interventions for neuroticism may be important for early suicide prevention.
High levels of molecular diversity were identified in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) gene sequences of Schistosoma turkestanicum from Hungary. These cox1 sequences were all specific to Hungary which contrasted with the low levels of diversity seen in the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequences, the majority of which were shared between China and Iran isolates. Measures of within and between host molecular variation within S. turkestanicum showed there to be substantial differences in molecular diversity, with cox1 being significantly more diverse than the ITS. Measures of haplotype frequencies revealed that each host contained its own subpopulation of genetically unique parasites with significant levels of differentiation. Pairwise mismatch analysis of cox1 sequences indicated S. turkestanicum populations to have a bimodal pairwise difference distribution and to be stable unlike the ITS sequences, which appeared to have undergone a recent population expansion event. Positive selection was also detected in the cox1 sequences, and biochemical modelling of the resulting protein illustrated significant mutational events causing an alteration to the isoelectric point of the cox1 protein, potentially altering metabolism. The evolutionary signature from the cox1 indicates local adaptation and long establishment of S. turkestanicum in Hungary with continual introgression of nuclear genes from Asian isolates. These processes have led to the occurrence of mito-nuclear discordance in a schistosome population
Permeable and porous surfaces are common in natural and engineered systems. Flow and transport above such surfaces are significantly affected by the surface properties, e.g. matrix porosity and permeability. However, the relationship between such properties and macroscopic solute transport is largely unknown. In this work, we focus on mass transport in a two-dimensional channel with permeable porous walls under fully developed laminar flow conditions. By means of perturbation theory and asymptotic analysis, we derive the set of upscaled equations describing mass transport in the coupled channel–porous-matrix system and an analytical expression relating the dispersion coefficient with the properties of the surface, namely porosity and permeability. Our analysis shows that their impact on the dispersion coefficient strongly depends on the magnitude of the Péclet number, i.e. on the interplay between diffusive and advective mass transport. Additionally, we demonstrate different scaling behaviours of the dispersion coefficient for thin or thick porous matrices. Our analysis shows the possibility of controlling the dispersion coefficient, i.e. transverse mixing, by either active (i.e. changing the operating conditions) or passive mechanisms (i.e. controlling matrix effective properties) for a given Péclet number. By elucidating the impact of matrix porosity and permeability on solute transport, our upscaled model lays the foundation for the improved understanding, control and design of microporous coatings with targeted macroscopic transport features.
Impetigo is common in remote Indigenous children of northern Australia, with the primary driver in this context being Streptococcus pyogenes [or group A Streptococcus (GAS)]. To reduce the high burden of impetigo, the transmission dynamics of GAS must be more clearly elucidated. We performed whole genome sequencing on 31 GAS isolates collected in a single community from children in 11 households with ⩾2 GAS-infected children. We aimed to determine whether transmission was occurring principally within households or across the community. The 31 isolates were represented by nine multilocus sequence types and isolates within each sequence type differed from one another by only 0–3 single nucleotide polymorphisms. There was evidence of extensive transmission both within households and across the community. Our findings suggest that strategies to reduce the burden of impetigo in this setting will need to extend beyond individual households, and incorporate multi-faceted, community-wide approaches.
Firestone & Scholl (F&S) rely on three problematic assumptions about the mind (modularity, reflexiveness, and context-insensitivity) to argue cognition does not fundamentally influence perception. We highlight evidence indicating that perception, cognition, and emotion are constructed through overlapping, distributed brain networks characterized by top-down activity and context-sensitivity. This evidence undermines F&S's ability to generalize from case studies to the nature of perception.
We propose that the relative influence of clans is an important explanatory factor producing significant variation in state stability and security across societies. We explore the micro-level processes that link clan predominance with dysfunctional syndromes of state behavior. Clans typically privilege agnatic descent from the patriline and are characterized by extreme subordination of women effected through marriage practices. Particular types of marriage practices give rise to particular types of political orders and may be fiercely guarded for just this reason. We construct and validate a Clan Governance Index to investigate which variables related to women's subordination to the patriline in marriage are useful to include in such an index. We then show that clan governance is a useful predictor of indicators of state stability and security, and we probe the value added by its inclusion with other conventional explanatory variables often linked to state stability and security.
“I against my brothers; my brothers and I against my cousins; my cousins, my brothers, and I against the world” (Bedouin saying)
“At the heart of tribes, to varying levels, is a severe patriarchy” (Jacobson 2013, 58).