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The present paper examines the influence of age and gender on food patterns of Latino children.
Data are from baseline of a 5-year, quasi-experimental obesity prevention study: Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS; Healthy Children, Healthy Families). In 2012, the researchers interviewed Latino parents, using a thirty-item questionnaire to ask about their children’s food consumption and feeding practices. Statistical tests included t tests and ANCOVA.
Rural communities in California’s Central Valley, USA.
Two hundred and seventeen parents (87–89 % born in Mexico) and their children (aged 2–8 years).
Fifty-one per cent of the children were overweight or obese (≥85th percentile of BMI for age and gender). Mean BMI Z-scores were not significantly different in boys (1·10 (sd 1·07)) and girls (0·92 (sd 1·04); P=0·12). In bivariate analysis, children aged 2–4 years consumed fast and convenience foods less often (P=0·04) and WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)-allowable foods more often than children aged 5–8 years (P=0·01). In ANCOVA, neither age nor gender was significantly related to food patterns. Mother’s acculturation level was positively related to children’s consumption of fast and convenience foods (P=0·0002) and negatively related to consumption of WIC foods (P=0·01). Providing role modelling and structure in scheduling meals and snacks had a positive effect on the vegetable pattern (P=0·0007), whereas meal skipping was associated with more frequent fast and convenience food consumption (P=0·04).
Acculturation and child feeding practices jointly influence food patterns in Latino immigrant children and indicate a need for interventions that maintain diet quality as children transition to school.
To assess the relationship of acculturation with physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Hispanic women in California.
Data from the 2005 California Women's Health Survey (CWHS) – a cross-sectional telephonic survey of health indicators and health-related behaviours and attitudes – were used.
Using a random-digit dialling process, data were collected monthly from January to December 2005.
A total of 1298 women aged ≥18 years in California who self-identified as Hispanic.
Of the participants included in the analysis, 49 % were adherent to physical activity recommendations (with 150 min of weekly activity signifying adherence). There was no significant association between language acculturation and moderate or vigorous physical activity after controlling for potential confounders such as smoking, age and employment status. There was also no association between duration of residence in the USA and moderate or vigorous physical activity. Language acculturation was positively associated with television (TV) viewing, with highly acculturated women reporting more hours of TV viewing compared with women with an intermediate acculturation score (P = 0·0001), and those with an intermediate score reporting more hours of TV viewing compared with those with a low score (P = 0·003). This relationship persisted after inclusion of smoking, employment status, age and education in the model.
Higher levels of language acculturation may be associated with increased sedentary behaviours because of the influence of US culture on those women who have assimilated to the culture. Acculturation is an important factor to be taken into account when designing health education interventions for the Hispanic female population.
The purpose of the present study was to test the construct validity, internal consistency and convergent validity of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) in measuring household food insecurity in rural Tanzania, and to determine socio-economic characteristics associated with household food insecurity.
Key informant interviews and a cross-sectional survey were conducted in February and March 2008.
Rural Iringa, Tanzania.
Key informant interviews were conducted with twenty-one purposively selected male and female village leaders. For the household surveys, a sample of 237 households with mothers (caregivers) and at least one child between 1 and 5 years of age were included.
Approximately 20·7 % of the households were categorized as food-secure, 8·4 % as mildly food-insecure, 22·8 % as moderately food-secure and 48·1 % as severely food-insecure. Two main factors emerged from the rotated principal component factor analysis: (i) insufficient food quality; and (ii) insufficient food intake. Both factors explained 69 % of the total variance. The full food insecurity scale and the two subscales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0·83–0·90). Food security, as measured by HFIAS, was positively associated with maternal education, husband’s education, household wealth status, being of an agricultural rather than pastoral tribe and animal-source food consumption; it was negatively associated with maternal age and household size.
The HFIAS measurement instrument shows validity and reliability in measuring household food insecurity among poor households in rural Tanzania.
To determine factors associated with Food Stamp Program (FSP) participation in a potentially eligible California population.
The California Women’s Health Survey is an on-going annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Statistical procedures included χ2 and logistic regression.
California, USA, from 2002 to 2004.
A total of 527 FSP female participants and 1405 potentially eligible non-participant females, aged 18 years and older.
The following characteristics remained independently and positively related to FSP participation: single mother with children; unemployed; on welfare; on WIC (the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children); and US-born. Women under 25 years and those over 54 years were less likely to participate than women aged 25–54 years. Hispanic/Latino ethnicity was also negatively related to participation. Over 42 % of potentially eligible non-participants cited ‘don’t need them’ as the reason for not applying for FSP, but 34·9 % either do not think they are eligible or do not know how to apply. Potentially eligible non-participants who cite ‘don’t need them’ as a reason for not applying are less likely to be food insecure, to have inadequate income and to use alternative emergency aid, compared to women citing all other reasons. The highest level of need is among those who cite worry about citizenship or stigma as reasons for not applying.
Strategies to increase participation in FSP should incorporate messages that change the public’s perception of the programme, in addition to simplifying the application process, raising awareness of eligibility criteria and improving customer service.
To identify factors associated with food insecurity in California women.
The California Women's Health Survey is an ongoing annual telephone survey that collects data about health-related attitudes and behaviours from a randomly selected sample of women. Food insecurity of the women was measured by a 6-item subset of the Food Security Module. Statistical procedures included chi-square tests, t-tests, logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance.
Four thousand and thirty-seven women (18 years or older).
Prevalence of food insecurity was 25.7%. After controlling for income, factors associated with greater food insecurity were Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity; less than a 12th grade education; being unmarried; less than 55 years old; being Spanish-speaking; having spent less than half of one's life in the USA; sadness/depression; feeling overwhelmed; poor physical/mental health interfering with activities; and fair to poor general health. Among Food Stamp Program (FSP) participants, 71% were food-insecure. Among FSP-eligible women who had not applied for the programme, the prevalence of food insecurity was lower among women responding that they did not need food stamps than in women giving other reasons for not applying (23.9% vs. 66.9%, P < 0.001). Factors associated with food insecurity in FSP recipients included being unable to make food stamps last for 30 days, feeling overwhelmed, and having a birthplace in Mexico or Central America.
Along with several socio-economic variables, poor physical and mental health is associated with food insecurity. Whether food insecurity is a cause or effect of poor health remains in question.
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