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We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) intake and long-term risks of CVD, cancer and all-cause mortality in nationwide survey participants aged ≥ 18.
This was a prospective cohort study. Dietary intakes of BCAA (leucine, isoleucine and valine) were determined from the total nutrient intake document. The main outcomes were CVD, cancer and all-cause mortality.
A nationally representative sample of US adults were recruited by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) from 1988 to 1994.
A total of 14 397 adults aged ≥ 18 who participated in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) were included.
During 289 406 person-years of follow-up, we identified 4219 deaths, including 1133 from CVD and 926 from cancer. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of all-cause mortality in the highest dietary BCAA and isoleucine intake quintile (reference: lowest quintiles) were 0·68 (0·48, 0·97) and 0·68 (0·48, 0·97), respectively. Each one-standard-deviation increase in total dietary BCAA or isoleucine intake was associated with an 18 % or 21 % decrease in the risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. The serum triglyceride (TAG) concentration was found to modify the association between the dietary BCAA intake and all-cause mortality (Pfor interaction = 0·008).
In a nationally representative cohort, higher dietary intakes of BCAA and isoleucine were independently associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, and these associations were stronger in participants with higher serum TAG concentrations.
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