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Background: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed–and overprescribed–at hospital discharge, leading to adverse-events and patient harm. Our understanding of how to optimize prescribing at discharge is limited. Recently, we published the ROAD (Reducing Overuse of Antibiotics at Discharge) Home Framework, which identified potential strategies to improve antibiotic prescribing at discharge across 3 tiers: Tier 1–Critical infrastructure, Tier 2–Broad inpatient interventions, Tier 3–Discharge-specific strategies. Here, we used the ROAD Home Framework to assess the association of stewardship strategies with antibiotic overuse at discharge and to describe pathways toward improved discharge prescribing. Methods: In fall 2019, we surveyed 39 Michigan hospitals on their antibiotic stewardship strategies. For patients hospitalized at participating hospitals July 1, 2017, through July 30, 2019, and treated for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and urinary tract infection (UTI), we assessed the association of reported strategies with days of antibiotic overuse at discharge. Days of antibiotic overuse at discharge were defined based on national guidelines and included unnecessary therapy, excess duration, and suboptimal fluoroquinolone use. We evaluated the association of stewardship strategies with days of discharge antibiotic overuse 2 ways: (1) all stewardship strategies were assumed to have equal weight, and (2) strategies weighted using the ROAD Home Framework with tier 3 (discharge-specific) strategies had the highest weight. Results: Overall, 39 hospitals with 20,444 patients (56.5% CAP; 43.5% UTI) were included. The survey response rate was 100% (39 of 39). Hospitals reported a median of 12 (IQR, 9–14) of 33 possible stewardship strategies (Fig. 1). On bivariable analyses, review of antibiotics prior to discharge was the only strategy consistently associated with lower antibiotic overuse at discharge (aIRR, 0.543; 95% CI, 0.335–0.878). On multivariable analysis, weighting by ROAD Home tier predicted antibiotic overuse at discharge for both CAP and UTI. For diseases combined, having more weighted strategies was associated with lower antibiotic overuse at discharge (aIRR per weighted intervention, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.927–0.987). Discharge-specific stewardship strategies were associated with a 12.4% relative decrease in antibiotic overuse days at discharge. Based on these findings, 3 pathways emerged to improve antibiotic use at discharge (Fig. 2): inpatient-focused strategies, “doing it all,” and discharge-focused strategies. Conclusions: The more stewardship strategies reported, the lower a hospitals’ antibiotic overuse at discharge. However, different pathways to improve discharge antibiotic use exist. Thus, discharge stewardship strategies should be tailored. Specifically, hospitals with limited stewardship resources and infrastructure should consider implementing a discharge-specific strategy straightaway. In contrast, hospitals that already have substantial inpatient infrastructure may benefit from proactively incorporating discharge into their existing strategies.
Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Even after recovery, recurrent CDI (rCDI) occurs frequently, and concomitant antibiotic use for treatment of a concurrent non–C. difficile infection is a major risk factor. Treatment with fidaxomicin versus vancomycin is associated with similar rate of cure and lower recurrence risk. However, the comparative efficacy of these 2 agents remains unclear in those receiving concomitant antibiotics. Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial at the University of Michigan and St. Joseph Mercy hospitals in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Patients provided written informed consent at enrollment. We included all hospitalized patients aged ≥18 years with a positive test for toxigenic C. difficile, >3 unformed stools per 24 hours, and ≥1 qualifying concomitant antibiotic with a planned treatment of an infection for ≥5 days after enrollment. We excluded patients with complicated CDI, allergy to vancomycin–fidaxomicin, planned adjunctive CDI treatments, CDI treatment for >24 hours prior to enrollment, concomitant laxative use, current or planned colostomy or ileostomy, and/or planned long-term (>12 weeks) concomitant antibiotic use. Clinical cure was defined as resolution of diarrhea for 2 consecutive days maintained until the end of therapy and for 2 days afterward. rCDI was defined as recurrent diarrhea with positive testing within 30 days of initial treatment. Patients were randomized (stratified by ICU status) to fidaxomicin 200 mg twice daily or vancomycin 125 mg orally 4 times daily for 10 days. If concomitant antibiotic treatment continued >10 days, the study drug continued until the concomitant antibiotic ended. Bivariable statistics included t tests and χ2 tests. Results: After screening 5,101 patients for eligibility (May 2017–May 2021), 144 were included and randomized (Fig. 1). Study characteristics and outcomes are noted in Table 1. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Most patients were aged <65 years, were on a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), and were not in the ICU. The mean duration of concomitant antibiotic was 18.4 days. In the intention-to-treat population, clinical cure (73% vs 62.9%; P =.195), and rCDI (3.3% vs 4.0%; P >.99) were similar for fidaxomicin and vancomycin, respectively. Conclusions: In this study of patients with CDI receiving a concomitant antibiotic, a numerically higher proportion were cured with fidaxomicin versus vancomycin, but this result did not reach statistical significance. Overall recurrence was lower than anticipated in both arms compared to previous studies in which duration of CDI treatment was not extended during concomitant antibiotic treatment. Future studies are needed to ascertain whether clinical cure is higher with fidaxomicin than vancomycin during concomitant antibiotic exposure, and whether extending the duration of CDI treatment reduces recurrence.
Asynchronous virtual patient care is increasingly used; however, the effectiveness of virtually delivering guideline-concordant care in conjunction with antibiotic stewardship initiatives remains uncertain. We developed a bundled stewardship intervention to improve antibiotic use in E-visits for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs).
In this before-and-after study, adult patients who completed E-visits for “cough,” “flu,” or “sinus symptoms” at Michigan Medicine between January 1, 2018, and September 30, 2020, were included. Patient demographics, diagnoses, and antibiotic details were collected. The multifaceted intervention occurred over 6 months. Segmented linear regression was performed to estimate the effect of the intervention on appropriate antibiotic use for URTI diagnoses (defined as no antibiotic prescribed) and sinusitis (defined as guideline-concordant antibiotic selection and duration). Regression lines were fit to data before the bundled intervention (January 2019) and after the bundled intervention (May 2019).
In total, 5,151 E-visits were included. The intervention decreased the number of visits for flu, cough, or sinus symptoms prescribed antibiotics from 43.2% to 28.9% (P < .001). Guideline concordance of antibiotic prescriptions improved following the intervention: first-line amoxicillin-clavulanate rose from 37.9% of prescriptions to 66.1% of prescriptions (P < .001), second-line doxycycline rose from 13.8% to 22.7% (P < .001); and median duration of antibiotics decreased from 10 days to 5 days (P < .001).
A multifaceted stewardship bundle for E-visits involving both changes in the EMR and audit and feedback improved guideline-concordant antibiotic use for URTIs. This approach can aid stewardship efforts in the ambulatory care setting with regard to telemedicine.
Of 100 patients discharged from short-stay units (SSUs) with antibiotics, 47 had a skin and soft-tissue infection, 22 had pneumonia, and 21 had a urinary tract infection. Among all discharge antibiotic prescriptions, 78% involved antibiotic overuse, most commonly excess duration (54 of 100) and guideline discordant selection (44 of 100).
We sought to determine the incidence of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate associated predictors and outcomes.
In this multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 2020 to August 2020 across 38 Michigan hospitals, we assessed prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfections. In-hospital and 60-day mortality, readmission, discharge to long-term care facility (LTCF), and mechanical ventilation duration were assessed for patients with versus without coinfection.
Of 2,205 patients with COVID-19, 141 (6.4%) had a coinfection: 3.0% community onset and 3.4% hospital acquired. Of patients without coinfection, 64.9% received antibiotics. Community-onset coinfection predictors included admission from an LTCF (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 2.34–6.76; P < .001) and admission to intensive care (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.87–6.55; P < .001). Hospital-acquired coinfection predictors included fever (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.15–5.27; P = .02) and advanced respiratory support (OR, 40.72; 95% CI, 13.49–122.93; P < .001). Patients with (vs without) community-onset coinfection had longer mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.67–6.56; P = .001) and higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.06–3.40; P = .03) and 60-day mortality (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.05–3.29; P = .03). Patients with (vs without) hospital-acquired coinfection had higher discharge to LTCF (OR, 8.48; 95% CI, 3.30–21.76; P < .001), in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 2.37–7.33; P ≤ .001), and 60-day mortality (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 2.11–6.33; P ≤ .001).
Despite community-onset and hospital-acquired coinfection being uncommon, most patients hospitalized with COVID-19 received antibiotics. Admission from LTCF and to ICU were associated with increased risk of community-onset coinfection. Future studies should prospectively validate predictors of COVID-19 coinfection to facilitate the reduction of antibiotic use.
To address appropriateness of antibiotic use, we implemented an electronic framework to evaluate antibiotic “never events” (NEs) at 2 medical centers. Patient-level vancomycin administration records were classified as NEs or non-NEs. The objective framework allowed capture of true-positive vancomycin NEs in one-third of patients identified by the electronic strategy.
Background: Nearly half of hospitalized patients with bacteriuria or treated for pneumonia receive unnecessary antibiotics (noninfectious or nonbacterial syndrome such as asymptomatic bacteriuria), excess duration (antibiotics prescribed for longer than necessary), or avoidable fluoroquinolones (safer alternative available) at hospital discharge.1–3 However, whether antibiotic overuse at discharge varies between hospitals or is associated with patient outcomes remains unknown. Methods: From July 2017 to December 2018, trained abstractors at 46 Michigan hospitals collected detailed data on a sample of adult, non–intensive care, hospitalized patients with bacteriuria (positive urine culture with or without symptoms) or treated for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP; includes those with the disease formerly known as healthcare-associated pneumonia [HCAP]). Antibiotic prescriptions at discharge were assessed for antibiotic overuse using a previously described, guideline-based hierarchical algorithm.3 Here, we report the proportion of patients discharged with antibiotic overuse by the hospital. We also assessed hospital-level correlation (using Pearson’s correlation coefficient) between antibiotic overuse at discharge for patients with bacteriuria and patients treated for CAP. Finally, we assessed the association of antibiotic overuse at discharge with patient outcomes (mortality, readmission, emergency department visit, and antibiotic-associated adverse events) at 30 days using logit generalized estimating equations adjusted for patient characteristics and probability of treatment. Results: Of 17,081 patients (7,207 with bacteriuria; 9,874 treated for pneumonia), nearly half (42.2%) had antibiotic overuse at discharge (36.3% bacteriuria and 51.1% pneumonia). The percentage of patients discharged with antibiotic overuse varied 5-fold among hospitals from 14.7% (95% CI, 8.0%–25.3%) to 74.3% (95% CI, 64.2%–83.8%). Hospital rates of antibiotic overuse at discharge were strongly correlated between bacteriuria and CAP (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.76; P ≤ .001) (Fig. 1). In adjusted analyses, antibiotic overuse at discharge was not associated with death, readmission, emergency department visit, or Clostridioides difficile infection. However, each day of overuse was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of patient-reported antibiotic-associated adverse events after discharge (Fig. 2). Conclusions: Antibiotic overuse at discharge was common, varied widely between hospitals, and was associated with patient harm. Furthermore, antibiotic overuse at discharge was strongly correlated between 2 disparate diseases, suggesting that prescribing culture or discharge processes—rather than disease-specific factors—contribute to overprescribing at discharge. Thus, discharge stewardship may be needed to target multiple diseases.
Funding: This study was supported by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and Blue Care Network.
Disclosures: Valerie M. Vaughn reports contracted research for Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Michigan, the Department of VA, the NIH, the SHEA, and the APIC. She also reports receipt of funds from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Speaker’s Bureau, the CDC, the Pew Research Trust, Sepsis Alliance, and the Hospital and Health System Association of Pennsylvania.
Background:Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are frequently used to deliver intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy after discharge from the hospital. Infectious disease (ID) physicians are often consulted prior to PICC placement, but whether their approval influences PICC appropriateness and complications is not known. Methods: Using data from the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium (HMS) on PICCs placed in critically ill and hospitalized medical patients between January 1, 2015, and July 26, 2019, we examined the association between ID physician approval of PICC insertion for IV antibiotics and device appropriateness and outcomes. Appropriateness was defined according to the Michigan Appropriateness Guide for Intravenous Catheters (MAGIC) as a composite measure of (1) avoiding PICC use for durations ≤5 days; (2) using single-lumen instead of multilumen catheters; and (3) avoiding PICC use in patients with chronic kidney disease (eGFR>45 mL/min). The associations between ID approval of PICC use and odds of PICC-related complications (eg, deep vein thrombosis, central-line–associated bloodstream infection, and catheter occlusion) were also assessed. Multivariable models adjusting for patient severity of illness and hospital-level clustering were fit to both outcomes. Results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% CIs. Results: Data from 36,594 patients who underwent PICC placement across 42 Michigan hospitals were included in the analysis. In total, 21,653 (55%) PICCs were placed for the indication of IV antibiotics; 14,935 (69%) of these had a documented ID consultation prior to placement, whereas 6,718 (31%) did not. Of the 14,935 PICCs with an ID consultation, 10,238 (69%) had ID approval documented prior to device placement (Fig. 1). Compared to no approval, PICCs approved by ID prior to insertion were more likely to be appropriate (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 3.28–3.77; P < .001). Specifically, approval was associated with higher single-lumen use (OR, 5.13; 95% CI, 4.72–5.58; P < .001), less placement of PICCs with dwell times ≤ 5 days (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.25–0.32; P < .001), and less frequent use in patients with chronic kidney disease (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73–0.87; P < .001). ID approval of PICCs prior to insertion was associated with a significantly lower odds of PICC-related complications (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.51–0.64) (Table 1). Conclusions: ID approval of PICC use for IV antibiotic therapy in hospitalized patients was associated with greater appropriateness and fewer complications. Policies aimed at ensuring ID review prior to PICC use may help improve patient and device safety.
Disclosures:Valerie M. Vaughn reports contract research for Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Michigan, the Department of Veterans’ Affairs, the NIH, the SHEA, and the APIC. She also reports fees from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Speaker’s Bureau, the CDC, the Pew Research Trust, Sepsis Alliance, and The Hospital and Health System Association of Pennsylvania.
Background: Clinicians often diagnose bacterial infections such as urinary tract infection (UTI) and pneumonia in patients who are asymptomatic or have nonbacterial causes of their symptoms. Misdiagnosis of infection leads to unnecessary antibiotic use and potentially delays correct diagnoses. Interventions to improve diagnosis often focus on infections separately. However, if misdiagnosis is linked, broader interventions to improve diagnosis may be more effective. Thus, we assessed whether misdiagnosis of UTI and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was correlated. Methods: From July 2017 to July 2019, abstractors at 46 Michigan hospitals collected data on a sample of adult, non–intensive care, hospitalized patients with bacteriuria (positive urine culture) or who were treated for presumed CAP (discharge diagnosis plus antibiotics). Patients with concomitant bacterial infections were excluded. Using a previously described method,1,2 patients were assessed for UTI or CAP based on symptoms, signs, and laboratory or radiology findings. Misdiagnosis of UTI was defined as patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) treated with antibiotics number of patients with bacteriuria Misdiagnosis of CAP was defined as patients treated for presumed CAP who did not have CAP number of patients treated for presumed CAP. Hospital-level correlation was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient between misdiagnosis of UTI and CAP. For patients with prescriber data (N = 3,293), we also assessed emergency department (ED)-level correlation. Results: Of 11,914 patients with bacteriuria, 31.9% (N = 3,796) had ASB. Of those, 2,973 of 3,796 (78.3%) received antibiotics. Of 14,085 patients treated for CAP, 1,602 (11.4%) did not have CAP. Incidence of misdiagnosis varied by hospital: those with high rates of misdiagnosis of UTI were more likely to have high rates of misdiagnosis of CAP (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.58; P ≤ .001) (Fig. 1). Of 2,137 patients misdiagnosed with UTI, 1,159 (54.2%) had antibiotic treatment started in the ED; of those, 942 (81.3%) remained on antibiotics on day 3 of hospitalization. Of 1,156 patients misdiagnosed with CAP, 871 (75.3%) had antibiotic therapy started in the ED, and 789 of these 871 patients (90.6%) were still on antibiotics on day 3 of hospitalization. Hospitals with high rates of UTI misdiagnosis in the ED were more likely to have high rates of CAP misdiagnosis in the ED (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.33; P ≤ .001). Conclusions: Misdiagnosis of 2 unrelated infections was moderately correlated by hospital and weakly correlated by hospital ED. Potential causes include differences in organizational culture (eg, low tolerance for diagnostic uncertainty, emergency department culture), organizational initiatives (eg, sepsis, stewardship), or coordination between emergency and hospital medicine. Additionally, antibiotics initiated in the ED were typically continued following admission, potentially reflecting diagnosis momentum.
Funding: This work was supported by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and Blue Care Network.
Disclosures: Valerie M. Vaughn reports contract research for Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Michigan, the Department of Veterans’ Affairs, the NIH, the SHEA, and the APIC. She also reports fees from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Speaker’s Bureau, the CDC, the Pew Research Trust, Sepsis Alliance, and The Hospital and Health System Association of Pennsylvania.
To evaluate whether incorporating mandatory prior authorization for Clostridioides difficile testing into antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist workflow could reduce testing in patients with alternative etiologies for diarrhea.
Single center, quasi-experimental before-and-after study.
Tertiary-care, academic medical center in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Adult and pediatric patients admitted between September 11, 2019 and December 10, 2019 were included if they had an order placed for 1 of the following: (1) C. difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in patients hospitalized >72 hours and received laxatives, oral contrast, or initiated tube feeds within the prior 48 hours, (2) repeat molecular multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GIPAN) testing, or (3) GIPAN testing in patients hospitalized >72 hours.
A best-practice alert prompting prior authorization by the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) for EIA or GIPAN testing was implemented. Approval required the provider to page the ASP pharmacist and discuss rationale for testing. The provider could not proceed with the order if ASP approval was not obtained.
An average of 2.5 requests per day were received over the 3-month intervention period. The weekly rate of EIA and GIPAN orders per 1,000 patient days decreased significantly from 6.05 ± 0.94 to 4.87 ± 0.78 (IRR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56–0.93; P = .010) and from 1.72 ± 0.37 to 0.89 ± 0.29 (IRR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37–0.77; P = .001), respectively.
We identified an efficient, effective C. difficile and GIPAN diagnostic stewardship approval model.
Inappropriate antibiotic use is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and adverse events that can lead to further downstream patient harm. Preventative strategies must be employed to improve antibiotic use while reducing avoidable harm. We use the term “antibiotic never events” to globally recognize and define the most inappropriate antibiotic use.
Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.
Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,” published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.
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