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It is unclear whether the enhancing contact model (ECM) intervention is effective in reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and quality of life (QOL) among family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia (FCPWS).
We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in FCPWS in eight rural townships in Xinjin, Chengdu, China. In total, 253 FCPWS were randomly allocated to the ECM, psychoeducational family intervention (PFI), or treatment as usual (TAU) group. FCPWS in three groups were assessed caregiving burden, QOL and state of hope at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1), 3-month (T2), and 9-month (T3) follow-up, respectively.
Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly lower caregiving burden scores both at T1 and T2 (p = 0.0059 and 0.0257, respectively). Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the PFI group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T1 (p = 0.0406), while participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T3 (p = 0.0240). Participants in both ECM and PFI groups had statistically significantly higher hope scores than those in the TAU group at T1 (p = 0.0160 and 0.0486, respectively).
This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of ECM on reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and QOL in rural China. The results indicate the ECM intervention, a comprehensive and multifaceted intervention, is more effective than the PFI in various aspects of mental wellbeing among FCPWS. Future research needs to confirm ECM's effectiveness in various population.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid vs. solid), and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15,538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes at baseline (2013-2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazards ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 3,476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history, and overall diet quality, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) of NAFLD risk were 1.18 (1.06, 1.32) for total added sugars, 1.20 (1.08, 1.33) for liquid added sugars, and 0.96 (0.86, 1.07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
The wind energy industry relies on computationally efficient engineering-type models to design wind farms. Typically these models do not account for the effect of atmospheric stratification in either the boundary layer or the free atmosphere. This study proposes a new analytical model for fully developed wind-turbine arrays in conventionally neutral atmospheric boundary layers frequently encountered in nature. The model captures the effect of the free-atmosphere stratification, Coriolis force, wind farm layout and turbine operating condition on the wind farm performance. The model is developed based on the physical insight derived from large-eddy simulations. We demonstrate that the geostrophic drag law (GDL) for flow over flat terrain can be extended to flow over fully developed wind farm arrays. The presence of a vast wind farm significantly increases the wind farm friction velocity compared with flow over flat terrain, which is modelled by updated coefficients in the GDL. The developed model reliably captures the vertical wind speed profile inside the wind farm. Furthermore, the power production trends observed in simulations are reliably reproduced. The wind farm performance, normalized by the geostrophic wind speed, decreases as the free-atmosphere thermal stability increases or the Coriolis force decreases. In addition, we find that the optimal wind farm performance is obtained at a lower thrust coefficient than the Betz limit, which indicates that optimal operating conditions for turbines in a wind farm are different than for a single turbine.
Altered DNA methylation in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene has been shown to regulate stress response, which may serve as a biomarker of depression and a promising candidate for explaining sexual differences. However, there is no consistent conclusion so far.
The present study aimed to test the associations of FKBP5 DNA methylation with depressive symptoms and whether these associations were influenced by sex.
A nested case-control study comprising 87 cases and 151 controls was conducted in South China from January 2019 and December 2019. Peripheral blood for DNA extraction and DNA methylation analysis of FKBP5 gene promoter was collected, and severity of depressive symptoms was assessed at baseline and after one year follow-up.
Compared to healthy controls, lower methylation percentage of FKBP5-12 CpG 1 was observed in adolescents with depressive symptoms after adjusting covariates (case: 0.94 ± 2.00, control: 0.47 ± 0.92; F = 5.41, P = 0.021). In addition, hypomethylation of FKBP5 CpG sites was not an independent risk factor for depressive symptoms after adjustment for environmental stress factors (P > 0.05). No significant sex differences were found in the association of FKBP5 gene methylation with depressive symptoms.
Lower levels of FKBP5 methylation were found in adolescents with depressive symptoms. Our study supported that the epigenetic factors did not act alone in the development of depressive symptoms. Taken together, these findings contribute to a better understanding of complex mechanisms of gene-environment interactions involved in depression.
The high-altitude landscape of western Tibet is one of the most extreme environments in which humans have managed to introduce crop cultivation. To date, only sparse palaeoeconomic data have been reported from this region. The authors present archaeobotanical evidence from five sites (dating from the late first millennium BC and the early first millennium AD) located in the cold-arid landscape of western Tibet. The data indicate that barley was widely grown in this region by c. 400 BC but probably fulfilled differing roles within local ecological constraints on cultivation. Additionally, larger sites are characterised by more diverse crop assemblages than smaller sites, suggesting a role for social diversity in the development of high-altitude agriculture.
To address the shortcomings of existing methods for rotorcraft searching, positioning, tracking and landing on a ship at sea, a dual-channel LIDAR searching, positioning, tracking and landing system (DCLSPTLS) is proposed in this paper, which utilises the multi-pulse laser echoes accumulation method and the physical phenomenon that the laser reflectivity of the ship deck in the near-infrared band is four orders of magnitude higher than that of the sea surface. The DCLSPTLS searching and positioning model, tracking model and landing model are established, respectively. The searching and positioning model can provide estimates of the azimuth angle, the distance of the ship relative to the rotorcraft and the ship's course. With the above parameters as inputs, the total tracking time and the direction of the rotorcraft tracking speed can be obtained by using the tracking model. The landing model can calculate the pitch and the roll angles of the ship's deck relative to the rotorcraft by using the least squares method and the laser irradiation coordinates. The simulation shows that the DCLSPTLS can realise the functions of rotorcraft searching, positioning, tracking and landing by using the above parameters. To verify the effectiveness of the DCLSPTLS, a functional test is performed using a rotorcraft and a model ship on a lake. The test results are consistent with the results of the simulation.
To determine if limb lengths, as markers of early life environment, are associated with the risk of diabetes in China.
We performed a cohort analysis using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the associations between baseline limb lengths and subsequent risk of diabetes.
The CHARLS, 2011–2018.
The study confined the eligible subject to 10 711 adults aged over 45 years from the CHARLS.
During a mean follow-up period of 6·13 years, 1358 cases of incident diabetes were detected. When controlling for potential covariates, upper arm length was inversely related to diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 0·95, 95 % CI (0·91, 0·99), P = 0·028), and for every 1-cm difference in knee height, the risk of diabetes decreased by about 4 % (HR 0·96, 95 % CI (0·93, 0·99), P = 0·023). The association between upper arm length and diabetes was only significant among females while the association between knee height and diabetes was only significant among males. In analyses stratified by BMI, significant associations between upper arm length/knee height and diabetes only existed among those who were underweight (HR 0·91, 95 % CI (0·83, 1·00), P = 0·049, HR 0·92, 95 % CI (0·86, 0·99), P = 0·031).
Inverse associations were observed between upper arm length, knee height and the risk for diabetes development in a large Asian population, suggesting early life environment, especially infant nutritional status, may play an important role in the determination of future diabetes risk.
This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), and inflammation biomarkers, and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the STROBE statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (± 3 years), week of gestation (± 1 week), and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a 79-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were -0.65 ± 1.58 for cases and -1.19 ± 1.47 for controls (P value <0.001). E-DII scores positively correlated with IFN-γ (rs = 0.194, P value = 0.001) and IL-4 (rs = 0.135, P value = 0.021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (P trend <0.001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2.18 times the lowest tertiles (95% CI = 1.52, 3.13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30% (95% CI= 18%, 43%, P value <0.001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.11), IL-4 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.54) and TGF-β (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.
This study is performed to figure out how the presence of diabetes affects the infection, progression and prognosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the effective therapy that can treat the diabetes-complicated patients with COVID-19. A multicentre study was performed in four hospitals. COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or hyperglycaemia were compared with those without these conditions and matched by propensity score matching for their clinical progress and outcome. Totally, 2444 confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited, from whom 336 had DM. Compared to 1344 non-DM patients with age and sex matched, DM-COVID-19 patients had significantly higher rates of intensive care unit entrance (12.43% vs. 6.58%, P = 0.014), kidney failure (9.20% vs. 4.05%, P = 0.027) and mortality (25.00% vs. 18.15%, P < 0.001). Age and sex-stratified comparison revealed increased susceptibility to COVID-19 only from females with DM. For either non-DM or DM group, hyperglycaemia was associated with adverse outcomes, featured by higher rates of severe pneumonia and mortality, in comparison with non-hyperglycaemia. This was accompanied by significantly altered laboratory indicators including lymphocyte and neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein and urea nitrogen level, all with correlation coefficients >0.35. Both diabetes and hyperglycaemia were independently associated with adverse prognosis of COVID-19, with hazard ratios of 10.41 and 3.58, respectively.
Lower-crust-derived adakitic rocks in the Gangdese belt provide important constraints on the timing of Tibetan crustal thickening and on the relative contributions of magmatic and tectonic processes. Here we present geochronological and geochemical data for the Wangdui porphyritic monzogranites in the western Gangdese belt. Zircon U–Pb dating yields emplacement ages of 46–44 Ma. All samples have high Sr (321–599 ppm), low Yb (0.76–1.33 ppm) and Y (10.6–18.3 ppm) contents, with high La/Yb (51.1–72.3) and Sr/Y (21.0–51.4) ratios, indicating adakitic affinities. The low MgO (0.97–1.76 wt %), Cr (7.49–53.6 ppm) and Ni (4.75–29.1 ppm) contents, as well as high 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.7143–0.7145), low ϵNd(t) (−10.4 to −9.8) and zircon ϵHf(t) (−17.7 to 0.4) values, suggest that the Wangdui pluton most likely originated from partial melting of the thickened ancient lower crust. In combination with previously published data, despite the east–west-trending heterogeneity of crustal composition in the Gangdese belt, the La/Yb ratios of magmatic rocks reveal that both western and eastern segments experienced remarkable crustal thickening in the Eocene. However, in contrast to the thickened juvenile lower crust in the eastern segment formed by the underplating of mantle-derived magmas, tectonic shortening plays a more crucial role in thickening of the ancient basement in western Gangdese. In fact, such Eocene-thickened ancient lower-crust-derived adakitic rocks are widely distributed in the central Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. This, together with the extensive development of fold–thrust belts, suggests that tectonic shortening might be the main mechanism accounting for the crustal thickening associated with the India–Asia collision.
In vivo transparent vessel segmentation is important to life science research. However, this task remains very challenging because of the fuzzy edges and the barely noticeable tubular characteristics of vessels under a light microscope. In this paper, we present a new machine learning method based on blood flow characteristics to segment the global vascular structure in vivo. Specifically, the videos of blood flow in transparent vessels are used as input. We use the machine learning classifier to classify the vessel pixels through the motion features extracted from moving red blood cells and achieve vessel segmentation based on a region-growing algorithm. Moreover, we utilize the moving characteristics of blood flow to distinguish between the types of vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. In the experiments, we evaluate the performance of our method on videos of zebrafish embryos. The experimental results indicate the high accuracy of vessel segmentation, with an average accuracy of 97.98%, which is much more superior than other segmentation or motion-detection algorithms. Our method has good robustness when applied to input videos with various time resolutions, with a minimum of 3.125 fps.
This study presents preliminary discoveries from Sding Chung cave, an early multi-burial cave site in the Himalayan highlands dating from 300BC–AD 300. Multiple human and animal bones within the cave provide unique evidence for understanding the diverse mortuary rituals and biocultural adaptations in this region.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
The wheat aphid Sitobion miscanthi (CWA) is an important harmful pest in wheat fields. Insecticide application is the main method to effectively control wheat aphids. However, CWA has developed resistance to some insecticides due to its extensive application, and understanding resistance mechanisms is crucial for the management of CWA. In our study, a new P450 gene, CYP4CJ6, was identified from CWA and showed a positive response to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Transcription of CYP4CJ6 was significantly induced by both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and overexpression of CYP4CJ6 in the imidacloprid-resistant strain was also observed. The sensitivity of CWA to these two insecticides was increased after the knockdown of CYP4CJ6. These results indicated that CYP4CJ6 could be associated with CWA resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Subsequently, the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism was assessed, and miR-316 was confirmed to participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of CYP4CJ6. These results are crucial for clarifying the roles of P450 in the resistance of CWA to insecticides.
Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are a group of metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the degradation of xenobiotics and chemicals. However, the physiological function of this enzyme in insects remains poorly understood. In this study, three TcAOX genes (TcAOX1, TcAOX2, TcAOX3) were identified and characterized from Tribolium castaneum genome. Spatiotemporal expression profiling showed that TcAOX1 expression was most highly expressed at the early pupal stage and was predominantly expressed in the antennae of adults, indicating that TcAOX1 was involved in the degradation of chemical signals; TcAOX2 expression was most highly expressed at the late pupal stage and was mainly expressed in the fat body, epidermis of larvae and adults, respectively; and TcAOX3 expression was in all stages and was primarily expressed in the head of adults. Moreover, the transcripts of TcAOX2 and TcAOX3 were significantly induced after exposure to plant oil, and RNA interference (RNAi) targeting of each of them enhanced the susceptibility of beetles to this plant toxicant, suggesting that these two genes are associated with plant toxicant detoxification. Intriguingly, knockdown of the TcAOX1 led to reductions in female egg-laying but unchanged the hatchability and the development of genital organs, suggesting that this gene may mediate fecundity by effecting the inactivation of chemical signals in T. castaneum. Overall, these results shed new light on the function of AOX genes in insects, and could facilitate the development of research on pest control management.
Previous analyses of grey and white matter volumes have reported that schizophrenia is associated with structural changes. Deep learning is a data-driven approach that can capture highly compact hierarchical non-linear relationships among high-dimensional features, and therefore can facilitate the development of clinical tools for making a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia.
To identify consistent grey matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, 662 people with schizophrenia and 613 healthy controls were recruited from eight centres across China, and the data from these independent sites were used to validate deep-learning classifiers.
We used a prospective image-based meta-analysis of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. We also automatically differentiated patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls using combined grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumetric features, incorporated a deep neural network approach on an individual basis, and tested the generalisability of the classification models using independent validation sites.
We found that statistically reliable schizophrenia-related grey matter abnormalities primarily occurred in regions that included the superior temporal gyrus extending to the temporal pole, insular cortex, orbital and middle frontal cortices, middle cingulum and thalamus. Evaluated using leave-one-site-out cross-validation, the performance of the classification of schizophrenia achieved by our findings from eight independent research sites were: accuracy, 77.19–85.74%; sensitivity, 75.31–89.29% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.797–0.909.
These results suggest that, by using deep-learning techniques, multidimensional neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia are capable of robustly discriminating patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, findings which could facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment in schizophrenia.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, with symptoms appearing in the early developmental period. Little is known about its current burden at the global, regional and national levels. This systematic analysis aims to summarise the latest magnitudes and temporal trends of ASD burden, which is essential to facilitate more detailed development of prevention and intervention strategies.
The data on ASD incidence, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019 came from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The average annual percentage change was calculated to quantify the secular trends in age-standardised rates (ASRs) of ASD burden by region, sex and age.
In 2019, there were an estimated 60.38 × 104 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 50.17–72.01] incident cases of ASD, 283.25 × 105 (95% UI 235.01–338.11) prevalent cases and 43.07 × 105 (95% UI 28.22–62.32) DALYs globally. The ASR of incidence slightly increased by around 0.06% annually over the past three decades, while the ASRs of prevalence and DALYs both remained stable over the past three decades. In 2019, the highest burden of ASD was observed in high-income regions, especially in high-income North America, high-income Asia Pacific and Western Europe, where a significant growth in ASRs was also observed. The ASR of ASD burden in males was around three times that of females, but the gender difference was shrunk with the pronounced increase among females. Of note, among the population aged over 65 years, the burden of ASD presented increasing trends globally.
The global burden of ASD continues to increase and remains a major mental health concern. These substantial heterogeneities in ASD burden worldwide highlight the need for making suitable mental-related policies and providing special social and health services.
Ascaridia galli (Nematoda: Ascaridiidae) is the most common intestinal roundworm of chickens and other birds with a worldwide distribution. Although A. galli has been extensively studied, knowledge of the genetic variation of this parasite in detail is still insufficient. The present study examined genetic variation in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene among A. galli isolates (n = 26) from domestic chickens in Hunan Province, China. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction separately from adult A. galli individuals and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The length of the sequences of pcox1 is 441 bp. Although the intra-specific sequence variation within A. galli is 0–7.7%, the inter-specific sequence differences among other members of the infraorder Ascaridomorpha were 11.4–18.9%. Phylogenetic analyses based on the maximum likelihood method using the sequences of pcox1 confirmed that all of the Ascaridia isolates were A. galli, and also resolved three distinct clades. Taken together, the findings suggest that A. galli may represent a complex of cryptic species. Our results provide an additional genetic marker for the management of A. galli in chickens and other birds.