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The coherence and systemic strength of the collaborative process among thematic route stakeholders are key factors to economic success for individual businesses and regional economic development. The objective of this article is to identify the economic action set to rejuvenate the Cider Route and the Wine Route of the Montérégie region (Quebec, Canada). Group concept mapping is used to estimate the conceptualization and perceptions of stakeholders (cideries, wineries, tourism professionals, visitors) regarding the articulation of the action set. The contribution is threefold. Methodologically, the approach taken supports both the estimation of the concept map and associated perception measures. Empirically, eight action clusters are identified to articulate stakeholders’ “organizational” and “selling” dimensions of the routes. Practically, action priorities identified and feasibility constraints are helpful to target the capability development support needed by route stakeholders to collaborate. (JEL Classifications: D02, L23, L26, L66, Q18)
Hormonally active compounds of different origins such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their derivatives are widely dispersed in the environment by various industrial processes. They represent a threat to human health since their toxic effects can result from biological accumulation of low doses of active compound during extended periods of exposure. Critical doses for a cytotoxic effect have been determined using cellular models such as cultured hepatocytes but it is still not known if lower doses can affect in vitro cell functions before any toxic effect can be detected. To address this issue we have used a functional genomic approach to characterize changes in the profile of genes expressed by cultured bovine fibroblasts exposed during only 26 hours to concentrations as low as 10-10 to 10-12 molar of TCDD
The objective of this article is to estimate the spatial structure of the collective economic conceptualization of strategic actions by cidermakers in Québec. It employs group concept mapping, a mixed methods–based approach. Given the limited research on the economic conceptualization of horizontal coordination for guiding collective strategic action orientations, this contribution is threefold: methodological, empirical, and practical. Methodologically, the results show the perspective of horizontally coordinated cidermakers and use statistical estimates and retroduction as an inference mode to produce and structure the concept map. Empirically, the spatial economic conceptualization consists of a concept map with seven strategic action clusters organized around the notions of product supply and demand and highlights tensions between individual and collective strategic actions. Practically, measures of relative importance and relative feasibility are obtained for each cluster on the map, and implications are discussed. (JEL Classifications: D02, L23, L26, L66, Q18)
Electronographic plates have been obtained with the ESO 3,6 m telescope and the CFH telescope. One of the plates is reproduced figure 1. We have studied the regions surrounding the nucleus of 3C 120 (r<8″) and emitting in the continuum. The “jet” found by Wlérick et al. (1981) has been resolved into 3 condensations, A, B and D; another condensation C is located 7″ S-E of the nucleus; a filament F leaves the nucleus in the direction of condensation B. The 4 condensations have been measured in colours U B V and V′, this last band excluding the [OIII] emission lines. We have located each condensation with respect to the zones where gaz emission is observed and particularly two regions that we call E1 and E2. We have also located condensation A with respect to the radiojet and we have searched, in B and V colours, for polarization of this condensation. The results are the following:
1.The 4 condensations are faint: 20,0<B<20,8, corresponding Jo the absolute magnitudes: −16,1 < Mg<−15, 3, using H = 60 km s−1 Mpc−1. Colours of condensations A, B and D are similar: U-B∼−0,20; B-V∼0,87; condensation C is less blue: U-B∼0,30; B-V∼0,90.
2.The brightest condensation A is elongated nearby North-South, its southern part pointing toward S-E (Fig. 1). It is interesting to place A with respect to the radiojet (cf. Browne et al., 1982, Walker et al., 1987). The maximum of A is located 1″ North of the first knot of the jet but the southern part of A coincides with this knot. The maximum of the emission region E1 is located 1″ West of the maximum of A, but region overlaps a large part of A. Though no significant polarization has been found for A taken globally, we suggest that the flux of A consists of two parts: in the southern region of A, the flux could be synchrotron radiation corresponding to a spectral index radio-visible ∼0,7; the northern part of A would be a zone of star formation triggered by the impact of the jet on region E1; the situation is very similar to the one found with Minkowskis object (Van Breugel et al., 1985; Brodie et al., 1985), concerning the relative position of A and the jet, as well as the variation of polarization of this jet and its change of direction; on the other hand, A is not as blue as Minkowski's object and this is likely due to the fact that the number of young stars is smaller; the change of the polarization in a well localized part of the radio knot (Walker et al., 1987) suggests that the gazeous region E1 is flattened and that the jet crosses it obliquely.
3.Condensations B and D form a chain with A and they are located in a region where no emission is observed; they are made probably of stars older than the one of condensation A.
4.Brightness and colours of condensation C are similar to those of the nucleus of a spiral galaxy. We suggest that C is the residue of a galaxy captured by 3C 120; this agrees with the work of Heckman et al. (1986); these authors consider a galaxy merger as the origin of the activity of 3C 120 and, as they do not see any neighbouring galaxy, they state that the merger has nearly reached completion. The bright gazeous region E2 connects possibly C and the nucleus of 3C 120.
The region surrounding the nucleus of 3C 120 has been recorded on electronographic plates, in U, B, V and V' colours. It has been possible to substract the contributions of the bright nucleus and the galaxy. Faint condensations appear. Their colours show that they are probably not emitting synchrotron radiation. The brightest condensation A is located 4” West of the nucleus. It does not coïncide exactly with the knot of the radio jet and is very slightly displaced toward the North. It is probably of the same nature as Minkowski's Object: burst of star formation triggered by the collision of the jet with relatively dense extranuclear gas.
the large field Lallemand electronographic camera has proved to be an ideal receptor for bidimensional photometry with the C.F.H. 3.6 m. Telescope. It permits to measure faint stars up to about B = 25. Plates of a large variety of objects have been obtained ; for example : crowded fields such as the nearby galaxy Messier 33 ; fields where one must recognize faint galaxies from stars; objects for which a high spatial resolution is needed, such as the optical jet of Messier 87 or gravitational lenses. It is possible to predict the limits of the receptor with a very large telescope.
We have observed an ordered structure in Zn0.5Fe0.5Se epilayers grown on (001) InP substrates using transmission electron microscopy. The ordered structure of Zn0.5Fe0.5Se has Fe atoms occupying the (0,0,0) and (½, ½, 0) sites and Zn atoms occupying the (0, ½, ½) and (½, 0, ½) sites in the zinc-blende unit cell. Ordering is observed in both electron diffraction patterns and cross-sectional high-resolution lattice images along the < 100 > and < 110 > directions. This ordered structure consists of alternating ZnSe and FeSe monolayers along the < 100 > and < 110 > directions. Computer image simulations of the high-resolution images under various thicknesses, and defocusing conditions have been obtained and are compared with those obtained experimentally.
We have investigated the magnetic order, using SQUID magnetometry, for short modulation wavelength Fe3O4/NiO superlattices, grown on single crystal MgO. Ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 has a saturation moment of ~500 emu/cm3 at 0 K and a Curie temperature of 858 K, while bulk NiO is antiferromagnetic with a NMel temperature of 525 K. Very high crystalline quality with little interdiffusion is indicated by X-ray diffraction, SEM, optical microscopy, and in-situ RHEED, and the samples show highly anisotropic electrical conductivity which also indicates the strong modulation present. Long wavelength samples (Amod > 200 Å) have a behavior only slightly different from that expected from bulk Fe3O4, but for Amod<80 Å, spontaneous magnetization is replaced by paramagnetism, with weak temperature dependence (not I/T) from 5 K to 400 K.
We have extended the Neél model of surface anisotropy in b.c.c. crystals to include next nearest neighbor interaction. Fitting the experimental data for Fe (001) and (110) surfaces leads to some pradoxes which cast doubt on the Neél surface anisotropy as the dominant source of surface anisotropy in thin films.
We summarize results of our recent theoretical studies of spin dependent scattering of electrons from ferromagnetic surfaces. We obtain an excellent account of both the energy and angle variation of the exchange asymmetry reported by Waller and Gradmann in their SPLEED study of the Fe(110) surface, and of spin dependent asymmetries in the transmission of photoelectrons through an ultra thin film of Fe on Cu(100). Potentials supplied by Fu and Freeman enable us to account for the data, with use of ground state potentials generated by ab initio methods.
Ce travail présente une technique de détection et de suivi de l’endommagement dans les
structures en matériaux composites. Les mécanismes d’endommagement dans ces matériaux sont
complexes. Dès lors que l’on souhaite modéliser le comportement d’une structure, il est
important de comprendre comment celle-ci s’endommage. La méthode optique d’observation
in-situ proposée est appliquée au cas d’une plaque trouée.
A multidisciplinary research programme was developed to get a scientific expertise for the quality assessment of products obtained from cloned livestock. Thirty-seven bovine Holstein female clones of five different genotypes and their products were analysed in comparison with 38 control animals obtained by conventional artificial insemination and raised under the same conditions at the same experimental farm. Animal evaluation included over 150 criteria and more than 10 000 measurements to check the physiological status and health over a 3-year period. All the parameters studied were in the normal range for age and breed, but some significant differences were detected between clone and control groups in terms of delayed onset of puberty in clones, higher neutrophil counts in haematology or lower biochemical plasma concentrations of gamma glutamyl transferase. Milk and meat analyses were conformable to expected values. We, however, found some differences in fatty acid (FA) composition of milk and muscle suggesting a possible deviation in lipid metabolism as assessed by higher delta-9 desaturase activity indexes in both milk and muscles from clones compared with controls. Repeated muscle biopsies in the semitendinosus muscle of the same animals demonstrated a higher oxidative activity in muscle of young clones (8 months of age) compared with controls, suggesting a delayed muscle maturation in clones. Nutritional evaluation of milk and meat using the rat feeding trials did not show any difference between clone and control products for food intake, growth rate, body composition of the rats, nor for possible allergenicity. Possible reactivation of bovine endogenous retroviruses (BERVs) was analysed and compared between normal and cloned cattle. As expected, these BERV sequences are not transcribed and no RNA was detected in the blood of clones, donor animals or controls; therefore, it may be assumed that the sanitary risk associated with BERV sequences is not higher in cattle derived from somatic nuclear transfer than in cattle born from conventional reproduction. Our results confirm that the quality and safety of products (milk and meat) from adult and clinically healthy cloned cattle is globally similar to normal animals. However, from a strictly biological point of view, the slightly delayed maturation we observed in the muscle of clones together with some marginal differences identified in FA composition of both muscle and milk, point to the need for more refined analysis to totally exclude any risks from the consumption of those products.
This paper critically assesses the design implications for the analysis of surveys of infections. It indicates the danger of not accounting for the study design in the statistical investigation of risk factors. A stratified design often implies an increased precision while clustering of infection results in a decreased precision. Through pseudo-likelihood estimation and linearisation of the variance estimator, the design effects can be taken into account in the analysis. The intra-cluster-correlation can be investigated through a logistic random effect model and a generalised estimating equation (GEE), allowing the investigation of the extent of spread of infections in a herd (cluster). The advantage of using adaptive Gaussian quadrature in a logistic random effect model is discussed. Applicable software is briefly reviewed. The methods are illustrated with data from a bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) serosurvey of Belgian cattle.
The after effects of three years' continuous cropping with sole millet, sole cowpea or a traditional millet/cowpea intercrop were compared using five levels of nitrogen fertilizer. The continuous sole cowpea system had reduced the carbon to nitrogen ratio more than the continuous sole millet or the traditional intercrop. The test crop millet yielded much more, and its uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus was greater, when it followed sole cowpea than when it followed sole millet or the traditional millet/cowpea intercrop. The three years' continuous sole cowpea had an effect equivalent to the application of 205 kg N ha−1 on the test crop of millet. It also caused the greatest reduction in Striga infestation in the test crop. It is therefore recommended that cowpea cultivation be increased in the Sahel.
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