To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A stable reference gene is a key prerequisite for accurate assessment of gene expression. At present, the real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction has been widely used in the analysis of gene expression in a variety of organisms. Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a major predator of mites on many important economically crops. Until now, however, there are no reports evaluating the stability of reference genes in this species. In view of this, we used GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder software tools to evaluate the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes in developmental stages and under various abiotic stresses. According to our results, β-ACT and Hsp40 were the top two stable reference genes in developmental stages. The Hsp60 and Hsp90 were the most stable reference genes in various acaricides stress. For alterations in temperature, Hsp40 and α-TUB were the most suitable reference genes. About UV stress, EF1α and α-TUB were the best choice, and for the different prey stress, β-ACT and α-TUB were best suited. In normal conditions, the β-ACT and α-TUB were the two of the highest stable reference genes to respond to all kinds of stresses. The current study provided a valuable foundation for the further analysis of gene expression in N. barkeri.
Over the recent years, potential associations between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and cancer risk have attracted a lot of attention. Nevertheless, the association between T. gondii infection and oral cancer remains relatively unexplored. We performed a case–control study of 861 oral cancer patients and 861 control subjects from eastern China with the aim to detect antibodies to T. gondii by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in these patients. The results showed that oral cancer patients (21.72%, 187/861) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than control subjects (8.25%, 71/861) (P < 0.001). Among them, 144 (16.72%) oral cancer patients and 71 (8.25%) control subjects were positive for IgG antibodies to T. gondii, while 54 (6.27%) oral cancer patients and 9 (1.05%) controls were positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. In addition, multiple logistic analysis showed that T. gondii infection in oral cancer patients was associated with blood transfusion history, keeping cats at home, and oyster consumption. To our knowledge, this is the first study that provided a serological evidence of an association between T. gondii infection and oral cancer patients. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of T. gondii in oral cancer patients.
Neoseiulus barkeri (HUGHES) is the natural enemy of spider mites, whiteflies and thrips. Screening for chemically-resistant predatory mites is a practical way to balance the contradiction between the pesticide using and biological control. In this study, the number of eggs laid by fenpropathrin-susceptible and resistant strains of N. barkeri was compared. Additionally, we cloned three N. barkeri vitellogenin (Vg) genes and used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify Vg expression in susceptible and resistant strains. The total number of eggs significantly increased in the fenpropathrin-resistant strain. The full-length cDNA cloning of three N. barkeri Vg genes (NbVg1, NbVg2 and NbVg3) revealed that the open reading frames of NbVg1, NbVg2 and NbVg3 were 5571, 5532 and 4728 bp, encoding 1856, 1843 and 1575 amino acids, respectively. The three N. barkeri Vg possessed the Vitellogenin-N domain (or lipoprotein N-terminal domain (LPD_N)), von Willebrand factor type D domain (VWD) and the domain with unknown function 1943 (DUF1943). The NbVg1 and NbVg2 expression levels were significantly higher in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain, while the NbVg3 expression level was lower in the resistant strain. Thus, we speculate that the increased number of eggs laid by the fenpropathrin-resistant strain of N. barkeri may be a consequence of changes in Vg gene expression.
The role of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in the pathogenesis of liver disease has recently gained much interest. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in patients with liver disease from three cities in Shandong and Henan provinces, China. A case–control study was conducted from December 2014 to November 2015 and included 1142 patients with liver disease and 1142 healthy controls. Serum samples were collected from all individuals and were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Information on the demographics, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants was collected from the medical records and by the use of a questionnaire. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG was 19·7% in patients with liver disease compared with 12·17% in the controls. Only 13 patients had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies compared with 12 control individuals (1·14% vs. 1·05%, respectively). The highest seroprevalence was detected in patients with liver cancer (22·13%), followed by hepatitis patients (20·86%), liver cirrhosis patients (20·42%), and steatosis patients (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that consumption of raw meat (odds ratio (OR) = 1·32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01–1·71; P = 0·03) and source of drinking water from wells (OR = 1·56; 95% CI 1·08–2·27; P = 0·01) were independent risk factors for T. gondii infection in liver disease patients. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection is more likely to be present in patients with liver disease. Therefore, efforts should be directed toward health education of populations at high risk of T. gondii infection and measures should be taken to protect vulnerable patients with liver disease.
Feeding a high concentrate (HC) diet is a widely used strategy for supporting high milk yields, yet it may cause certain metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the changes in milk production and hepatic metabolism in goats fed different proportions of concentrate in the diet for 10 weeks. In total, 12 mid-lactating goats were randomly assigned to an HC diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, n=6) or a low concentrate (LC) diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, n=6). Compared with LC, HC goats produced greater amounts of volatile fatty acids and produced more milk and milk lactose, fat and protein (P<0.01). HC goats showed a greater concentration of ATP, NAD, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and hepatic triglycerides than LC goats (P<0.05). Real-time PCR results showed that messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of gluconeogenic genes, namely, glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were significantly up-regulated and accompanied greater gluconeogenic enzyme activities in the liver of HC goats. Moreover, the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase mRNA was also up-regulated by the HC diet (P<0.05). HC goats had greater hepatic phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase than LC (P<0.05). Furthermore, histone-3-lysine-27-acetylation contributed to this elevation of gluconeogenic gene expression. These results indicate that lactating goats fed an HC diet for 10 weeks produced more milk, which was associated with up-regulated gene expression and enzyme activities involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis.
In recent years, the effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the cerebrum and neuropsychiatric patients has been increasingly highlighted. However, there is limited information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Shandong province, eastern China. Therefore, through a case-control study, 445 patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in Weihai, eastern China, and 445 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii and associated sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics in a population of psychiatric patients. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii in psychiatric patients (77/445, 17·30%) was significantly higher than in control subjects (55/445, 12·36%) (P = 0·038). Fourteen (3·15%) psychiatric patients and 10 (2·25%) control subjects had IgM antibodies to T. gondii (P = 0·408). Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with cats at home and consumption of raw/undercooked meat in psychiatric patients. Considering that most psychiatric patients usually have lower cognitive functioning and additional transmission routes related to their inappropriate behaviours that could enhance the risk of infection, psychiatric patients should be considered as a specific group of T. gondii infection.
Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China?
Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression and regression coefficients by linear or Poisson regression.
Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD [OR 3.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95–5.45]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17–5.23), genital (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.32–5.83) and intercourse (OR 13.35, 95% CI 1.83–97.42). The association between any form of CSA and MD remained significant after accounting for parental history of depression, childhood emotional neglect (CEN), childhood physical abuse (CPA) and parent–child relationship. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and an increased risk for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.39–2.66) and dysthymia (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.52–3.09).
In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes and increased co-morbidity with GAD and dysthymia. Although reporting biases cannot be ruled out, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, as in Western countries, CSA substantially increases the risk for MD in China.
Experiments of the return current post installed X-pinches were carried out on the 1-MA “QiangGuang-1” facility with the purpose of understanding X-pinch characteristics under this setup and establishing X-pinch backlighting diagnostics for the wire-array Z-pinches. Different wire-array loads along with the two-wire 30 µm Mo X-pinch backlighter were tested. The X-pinches emit the X-ray radiation with the burst time variation of ± 4 ns and the bright spot size of ~30 µm. X-ray backlighting shadowgraphy images of the over-mass and radiation-suppressed Z-pinch wire array were obtained.
Interface state density profiling of the thermal oxide / n-type 4H-SiC interface which underwent post-oxidation nitric-oxide (NO) annealing showed that an interface state density of approximately 1×1011 cm−2eV−1 could be achieved at around 0.2 eV below the conduction band. It decreased exponentially by two orders to 1×109 cm-2eV-1 at around 0.9 eV from the conduction band. The values are comparable or better than other published work. The low interface state density achieved near the conduction band is important towards improved channel carrier mobility in SiC MOSFETs. A positive flat-band voltage shift of the SiC based MOS capacitor was also observed. The shift reduced under UV illumination. It could be attributed to slow acceptor-like (negatively-charged) traps, which may have contributed to the instabilities observed in drain current and threshold voltage suffered by SiC MOSFETs.
Visual impairment is a leading cause of morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: (1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited, (2) utilizing the national twin registry, (3) word-of-mouth and local media publicity, (4) directly approaching schools, and finally (5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins.
The X-ray emission, especially the K-shell emission, from a neon gas-puff Z-pinch powered by the Qiang Guang-I accelerator, about 1.5 MA in amplitude and 100 ns in rise time, were calculated based on the two-level model and measured with X-ray diodes and an eight-frame X-ray pinhole camera. The simulation results showed that the K-shell yield is highly sensitive to the peak current. The experimental results confirmed that the matching of the Z-pinch load (mass and initial radius) to the current is crucial for getting a higher X-ray yield. Being determined by the imploding time, the pinch current plays a more important role than the current amplitude in K-shell emission. It seems that the preferable imploding time is about 110 ns. The K-shell radiation power with double shells, as a whole, is higher than that using single neon shell. While an implosion of a light (32 µg/cm) and small (20 mm in diameter) neon shell evolves with rather twist and asymmetries, a heavier (41 µg/cm) and bigger (25 mm in diameter) neon shell implodes more symmetrically. The double neon shells, 30 mm and 30 µg/cm for the outer shell, and 15-mm and 10 µg/cm for the inner shell, create almost “perfect” implosions evidenced by the early-time plasma shells with little perturbation and late stagnated pinch liners with a good axial uniformity. It was found that the “Zippering” effect leads to an earlier K-shell emission in the cathode region than that in the anode region, which extends the pulse width of K-shell emission.
Objective: To investigate the effects of various activation methods on freeze–thawed rabbit oocytes developmental potential. Methods: Rabbit oocytes were vitrified by cryoleafs and cryoprotected with ethylene glycol and propanediol. After thawing, the oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Surviving oocytes after ICSI were divided into five groups at random. Group 1: Oocytes (n = 30) activated 1 h after ICSI by calcium ionomycin (I0634); Group 2: Oocytes (n = 26) activated by strontium chloride an hour after ICSI; Group 3: Oocytes (n = 33) activated by I0634 twice; Group 4: Oocytes (n = 28) were activated by strontium chloride twice; Control Group: Inactivated oocytes (n = 39). Blastocysts derived from each group were transplanted to recipient rabbits. Results: Rates of fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst formation of Group 3 were higher than those of Group 1 and Group 2 (81.8% vs 33.3% vs 53.8%, 54.5% vs 16.7% vs 26.9%, p < 0.05; 15.2% vs 3.3% vs 7.7%, p > 0.05). The rabbit transplanted with embryos derived from Group 3 became pregnant. Embryos derived from double activation could implant into endometrium. Conclusion: Double activation may increase freeze–thawed oocytes developmental potential. After activation, oocytes cleavage velocity may be faster than that of oocytes without activation.
The study of indentation responses of rate-dependent (viscoplastic or creeping) solids has generally focused on the relationship between indentation hardness and an effective strain rate, which can be defined from a similarity transformation of the governing equations. The strain rate sensitivity exponent can be determined from the slope of a log-log plot of the hardness versus effective strain rate, while determining other constitutive parameters requires a knowledge of the relationship between contact size, shape, and indentation depth. In this work, finite element simulations have shown that the effects of non-axisymmetric contact and crystallography are generally negligible. Theoretical predictions agree well with real nanoindentation measurements on amorphous selenium when tested above glass transition temperature, but deviate quite significantly for experiments on high-purity indium, coarse-grained aluminum, and nanocrystalline nickel. Such a discrepancy is likely to result from the transient creep behavior.
Crystal structure and phase transformation behaviors in two
ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) with compositions of
Ni53Mn25Ga22 (at. %) as a function of temperature were investigated by in situ neutron diffraction experiments. Neutron diffraction technique proves to be highly efficient in characterizing structural transformation in
FSMAs, which consist of nearby elements in the periodic table. Our neutron results show that
Ni48Mn30Ga22 has a cubic, L21 Heusler structure from 373 to 293 K. Its crystal structure changes into a seven-layered orthorhombic martensitic structure when cooled to 243 K, and no further transformation is observed upon cooling to 19 K. Neutron diffraction results also show that
Ni53Mn25Ga22 has a tetragonal I4/mmm martensitic structure from 20 to 403 K. A pre-transformation around room temperature is observed from an abrupt jump in unit-cell volume of
Ni53Mn25Ga22, which corresponds with an endothermic peak detected in a heated DSC curve.
A ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy Ni48Mn25Ga22Co5 was prepared by the induction melting and isothermal forging process. Dynamic recrystallization occurs during the isothermal forging. The deformation texture was studied by the neutron diffraction technique. The main texture components consist of (110) and (001), which suggested that in-plane plastic flow anisotropy should be expected in the as-forged condition. The uniaxial compression fracture strain in the forged alloy reaches over 9.5%. The final room-temperature fracture of the polycrystalline Ni48Mn25Ga22Co5 is controlled mainly by intergranular mode.
Numerous studies have examined arsenic adsorption on varying adsorbents including iron oxides, aluminum hydroxides, alumina, and carbon as a means of arsenic removal in drinking water treatments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of magnetite particle size on the adsorption and desorption behavior of arsenite and arsenate, and to investigate the competitive adsorption between natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic. Increases in adsorption maximum capacities for arsenite and arsenate were observed with decreasing magnetite particle size. Arsenic desorption is hysteretic, more so with the smaller nanoparticles. Such desorption hysteresis might result from a higher arsenic affinity for magnetite nanoparticles. In the presence of NOM, substantial decrease in arsenic sorption to magnetite nanoparticles was observed. It would be beneficial to thoroughly investigate adsorption and desorption of arsenic on magnetite nanoparticles for further practical purposes.
The equilibrium shape of liquid inclusions in a crystalline matrix is a direct measure of the orientation dependence, or anisotropy, of the liquid/solid interfacial energy. In this work we have used diffraction contrast imaging in TEM to observe the shape of nanoscale liquid Pb inclusions in a solid Al matrix as a function of temperature. While a previous investigation reported a highly anisotropy equilibrium shape , more recent work showed that the inclusion shape depends on size, temperature and thermal history [2-4]. Here we report on a new method to make accurate automated measurements of these particle shapes during in-situ heating above the melting point of the inclusions.
Fig.l shows a typical bright field image of an array of liquid Pb inclusions in a solid Al matrix recorded at temperature during in-situ heating to 423°C. Under these two-beam diffraction conditions, particles are visible by absorption contrast and appear dark on a light background.
A novel method for synthesizing anisotropically shaped particles of materials having cubic symmetry is reported. Anisotropically shaped single-crystal particles of cubic SrTiO3 were obtained by epitaxial growth on tabular tetragonal Sr3Ti2O7. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that both the shape and the size of the single-crystal particles was regulated by selecting a precursor material that can act as a reaction site in molten KCl and has an epitaxial relation with SrTiO3. The  and  directions of tabular SrTiO3 are parallel to the  and  directions of the Sr3Ti2O7 host particle, respectively. Tabular SrTiO3 particles with rectangular faces having an edge length of 10–20 μm and a thickness of ˜2 μm were obtained by reacting TiO2 and tabular Sr3Ti2O7 particles of the same edge length in molten KCl.