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Few studies have examined the association between coffee consumption and muscle mass; their results are conflicting. Therefore, we examined the association between coffee consumption and low muscle mass prevalence. We also performed an exploratory investigation of the potential effect modification by demographic, health status-related and physical activity-related covariates. This cross-sectional study included 2085 adults aged 40–87 years. The frequency of coffee consumption was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Muscle mass was assessed as appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height2 using a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyser. We defined low muscle mass using cut-offs recommended by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Multivariable-adjusted OR for low muscle mass prevalence were estimated using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of low muscle mass was 5·4 % (n 113). Compared with the lowest coffee consumption group (< 1 cup/week), the multivariable-adjusted OR (95 % CI) of low muscle mass prevalence were 0·62 (0·30, 1·29) for 1–3 cups/week, 0·53 (0·29, 0·96) for 4–6 cups/week or 1 cup/d and 0·28 (0·15, 0·53) for ≥ 2 cups/d (P for trend < 0·001). There were no significant interactions among the various covariates after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, coffee consumption may be inversely associated with low muscle mass prevalence.
The association between a dietary pattern characterised by high alcohol intake and dyslipidaemia has not been fully investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between alcohol dietary patterns and the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2171 men and women aged ≥40 years who were alumni of a Japanese university. To identify dietary patterns, a principal component analysis was performed based on the energy-adjusted food intake estimated by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified, the second of which was named the alcohol dietary pattern and was characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken and fish. This alcohol dietary pattern was associated with reduced LDL-cholesterol levels. The fully adjusted OR (95 % CI) of high LDL-cholesterol for the lowest through highest quartile of alcohol dietary pattern score were 1·00 (reference), 0·83 (0·64, 1·08), 0·84 (0·64, 1·10) and 0·68 (0·49, 0·94), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the alcohol dietary pattern was inversely associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in women, whereas it was positively associated with high TAG levels in men. In conclusion, the alcohol dietary pattern, characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken and fish, was associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This finding provides useful information for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidaemia by modifying the diet.
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