In (6)Scholz asked if the inequality
held for all positive integers q, where l(n)is the number of multiplications required to raise xto the nth power (a precise definition of l(n)in terms of addition chains is given in § 2). Soon afterwards, Brauer (2) showed, among other things, that l(n) ∼(log n)/(log2). This suggests the problem of Calculating
It can be deduced from (2) that θ≦ 1. If θ <1, (1.1) follows immediately for infinitely many q.My main result,Theorem 5 of § 4, merely shows that θ is slightly larger than ⅓.Actually, I know of no case where (1.1) is not in fact an equality; a tedious calculation verifies this for 1 ≦ q≦ 8.