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Hospitalized patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB) are placed in airborne isolation until 3 sputum smear samples are negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (“Xpert”) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA and resistance to rifampicin is superior to AFB sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of TB.
To compare the performance of a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy for time to airborne infection isolation (AII) discontinuation.
Consecutive patients over 17 years of age in AII for suspected pulmonary TB between October 1, 2014, and March 31, 2016, with leftover respiratory AFB samples were enrolled in this study. A single Xpert was performed on the first available sample. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were recorded for each patient. We compared the duration of AII using a single Xpert to AFB smear microscopy under multiple theoretical scenarios using Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence curves and the log-rank test.
In total, 131 samples were included in our performance analysis of the Xpert, and 114 samples were included in our AII analysis. Overall, 81 patients (65%) were immunosuppressed, of whom 46 (37%) were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert for diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection were 67% and 100%, respectively. Xpert was negative in all cases of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Use of a single Xpert reduced AII duration from a median of 67 hours per patient to 42 hours with usual reporting, to 26 hours with direct communication, and to 12 hours with immediate testing.
A single negative Xpert result can reduce AII duration compared to the AFB smear microscopy technique under multiple theoretical scenarios.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:590–595
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